The value of Wade's dictionary is further enhanced by a helpful nine-page sketch of the historical development of Russian and a two-page glossary of essential terms such as back-formation
, hapiology, and pleophony.
The name stracitta, a type of back-formation
from the word stracittadino ("ultra-urban"), was meant to emphasize the movement's adherence to general trends in European literature, in opposition to strapaese (from strapaesano ["ultra-local"]), collectively, those authors who followed nationalist and regionalist trends.
Falling under this heading are various processes that are not fully productive nor rule-governed --such as clipping, back-formation
, blending and reduplication (cf.
The word is of recent origin (from the point of view of the etymologists), having been introduced into American speech in Colonial times as a Yankee corruption of the French phrase "quelque chose" meaning "something." Once kickshaws became part of our language, it was natural to treat it as a plural form and to coin "kickshaw" as the singular form--an example of a "back-formation
." Another such example is the word "pea." The plural "peas" (earlier "pease") was originally singular in meaning, though plural in sound.
Marchand's (1969) implications that the crucial difference between direct formation (composition), on the one hand, and back-formation
and conversion, on the other, is in the semantic interpretation of the whole, with only direct formation presumed to necessarily refer to the internal structure of the compound for its semantic interpretation sound unfounded in view of the powerful role of exemplar-based analogy (see Rainer 2005) in the creation of ever novel compound verbs (as attested by word spy, urban dictionary and various scholars--Bauer 1983; Nagano 2007; Plag 2003; Wald and Besserman 2002; etc.).
Once kickshaws became part of our language, it was natural to treat it as a plural form and to coin kickshaw as the singular form--an example of a back-formation
. Another such example is the word pea.
As Garner observes, "back-formations
are words formed by removing suffixes from longer words that are mistakenly assumed to be derivatives"for example, in the 1990s when we sheared the -tion off emotion to create emote.
The topics include a cognitive analysis of Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its Polish translation: linguistic worldview in translation criticism, the metanomic mapping within the event schema in noun-to-verb back-formations
, using cognitive tools in analyzing variant construals: the remakes of "The Scream" by Edvard Munch, linguistic and cultural image in the notion of death in Polish and German, and conceptual-linguistic creativity in poetic texts as a potential source of translation problems.
Explaining various etymologies, word histories, word creations and word deaths, they cover such topics as baby talk, back-formations
, neologisms, nonce words, euphemisms, prefixes and suffixes.