DAX-1, SF1 mutations) (iii) Peroxisome defects (adrenoleukodystrophy [childhood or neonatal], Zellweger syndrome) (iv) Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage of the newborn (v) Adrenal hemorrhage of acute infection (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome) (vi) Autoimmune adrenalitis
(isolated or part of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and 2) (vii) Infection (e.g.
Adrenal insufficiency is an infrequent endocrine disorder mostly due to autoimmune adrenalitis
; less common causes are infections, trauma, and metastatic cancer.
Since the 1950s, as therapies for tuberculosis (TB) have emerged, autoimmune adrenalitis
has exceeded TB as the leading cause of adrenal insufficiency in Western countries.
(1,2) Causes of Addison's disease include: autoimmune adrenalitis
; chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection; adrenal haemorrhage or infiltration; and genetic and idiopathic causes.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, pernicious anemia, autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune adrenalitis
in a single patient.