We adopt the same polity measure used by Blaydes and Kayser (2011) and ask: do democracies outperform autocracies
in terms of providing basic needs to the poor, as measured by their diets in terms of cereal equivalents?
In contrast, autocracies
will be more able to achieve growth as they are able to accumulate and distribute resources more efficiently.
If oppressive autocracies
have a secular and modern tilt, says Gerecht, veiling and Islamism become the logical forms of symbolic resistance.
Overall, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that time within an autocratic regime has a dampening effect on economic performance, while time outside of autocracies
is conducive to economic growth, with the more time outside of autocracy having an increasingly greater and positive effect on economic growth and income.
History demonstrates that the internal character of foreign regimes affects American interests; all our enemies have been autocracies
. Conversely, not all autocracies
have been enemies of the United States; yet McFaul judges that the long-term liabilities outweigh the short-term security gains made by collaborating with autocracies
(e.g., Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan).
But those who promulgate widespread debt forgiveness should be wary: Their policies may help autocracies
Whereas secularizing Westernized autocracies
like the Shah's prompted upwellings of religious radicalism, Iran's religious dictatorship has produced a softening secularization that is likely to last, since both non-religious and faithful Iranians increasingly see representative government as indispensable to their values."
The concert would not just act on its own: its members would work through other international institutions, including the United Nations, to mobilize democracies and autocracies
alike to meet pressing global challenges.
are very different from those of the past.
In instances where the United States must negotiate with autocracies
, Cooley argues that America should publicize the economic incentives given in exchange for basing rights in order to create some minimal domestic accountability for how these funds are spent.
pursue foreign policies aimed at making the world safe, if not for all autocracies
, at least for their own continued rule.
The Bush administration imagined that the United States and Saudi Arabia, along with fellow Sunni autocracies
such as Egypt and Jordan, shared common interests in containing Iran, stabilizing Iraq, defending the Lebanese government and settling the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
It was at the start of the 19905s, after all, that full democracies first began to outnumber autocracies
, and the gap has grown steadily ever since.
I would never endorse replacing free, democratic Israel--where Moslems are allowed to hold office and freely practice their religion--with a corrupt, brutal despotism that would oppress Christians and Jews while torturing and murdering Moslem dissenters, as all the Moslem autocracies
of the Middle East regularly do, including the so-called Palestinian Authority.
My key hypothesis is that enforcement is less likely in autocracies
, where government officials and their supporters both control the regulatory and judicial systems and are likely to engage in inside trading.