The auditory modality
elicited the lowest overall decrement in tracking performance (~19%), followed by the central visual modality (~31%), and followed by the peripheral visual modality (~ 54%).
We also anticipated that presentation via the auditory modality
alone would be hardest to identify.
Given the constraints related to the visual and temperature modalities, the affordability and low-tech nature of auditory devices, and the theory and evidence previously summarized, we selected the auditory modality
for our intervention.
It has been suggested (Morgan & Klein, 2000; Reid & Kirk, 2001) that dyslexic students may indeed have a weakness in the auditory modality
, so they are disadvantaged by the way in which academic material is presented, in that it does not suit their visuospatial/kinaesthetic learning style.
In this view the auditory modality
can access this representation and use the multisensory trace even in conditions in which the visual modality is not directly involved.
s (1987) findings, and give support to the view that both visual and auditory cues are being processed, rather than vision serving as a 'stand-by' back-up system for when the auditory modality
In one study, paired-associates presented visually were remembered more successfully than those presented in the auditory modality
(Dwivedi & Pandey, 1983).
The auditory modality
was a significant predictor of fall reading even when background factors of age, gender, and SES were statistically controlled.
Through the development of rapid protocols and portable testing equipment, the auditory modality
can be used to test for fundamental processing dysfunction immediately after exposure to a blast or other potentially brain-damaging event.
However, they also suggested some more complex interaction effects between combinations of tasks in the visual and auditory modality
The majority of studies based on Roediger & McDermott's (1995) study have employed their paradigm in which words are presented in the auditory modality
at study and in the visual modality at test (but see later for discussion of an exception by Smith & Hunt, 1998).
However, monitoring tasks are also performed in the auditory modality
, and the sensory modality of signals is not a matter of indifference where vigilance is concerned.
In the context of the tasks examined here, the auditory modality
will be a poor delivery channel for long verbal messages, for which working memory limits may be exceeded.
Although several early studies (see Chambers, 1963) have suggested that the auditory modality
remains unaffected by levels of acceleration known to disturb visual perception, later research has indicated that exposure to high levels of linear acceleration may degrade auditory acuity (Barer & Grishanov, 1976; Grishanov, 1976) and that even moderate levels of acceleration can result in hair cell damage (Johnson, Allen, Schultz, Liening, & Bell, 1998).
In visual search, we can address the question based on a solid empirical foundation; the question of how many sources has not been addressed in the auditory modality