Estimated influenza virus attributable fraction
(AF) and AF trends across age groups among outpatients with influenza-like illness, Klerksdorp and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, May 2012-April 2016.
This reduction translates into a population attributable fraction
of 13% for males, and 10% for females for red meat consumption (average PAF 12%) and of 14% (males) and 13% (females) for processed meat consumption (average PAF 14%).
Calculation of the population attributable fraction
for both the MORs was identical, i.
Next, we computed the attributable fraction
of PTB for outdoor air pollution for each decile, using the formula published by Levin (1953):
The burden of diarrhea attributable to water supply and sanitation was calculated based on the population attributable fraction
(PAF), which has been widely used in epidemiological studies, to measure how much of a burden of disease could be avoided, if any risk exposure factor for the occurrence of a certain disease were hypothetically eliminated.
In the depression study, the investigators compared the incidence of suicide attempts among depressed patients during major depressive episodes, partial remissions, and full remissions over 5 years of follow-up and found that 78% of the attempts (adjusted population attributable fraction
[PAF]) occurred during major depressive episodes.
The fraction of deaths or DALYs attributable to heavy drinking (Heavy Drinker Attributable Fraction
(HDAF)) was estimated as follows:
They combined these data and the NHANES figures to come up with a population attributable fraction
(PAF) - an estimate of the theoretical effects of a risk factor at a population, rather than an individual level - to work out the number of deaths associated with time spent sitting down.
The attributable fraction
(AF) estimation of asthma prevalence related to proximity to major roads or highways was calculated as follows: (28)
The two main approaches for estimating prevalence-based disease-attributable costs, the focus of this analysis, are (1) a regression-based (RB) approach applied to individual-level cost data and (2) an attributable fraction
(AF) approach applied to aggregate cost data (Miller, Ernst, and Collin 1999).
Maximum likelihood estimation of the attributable fraction
from logistic models.
Study characteristics and the concentration-response functions (CRF) used in the attributable fraction
Improving population attributable fraction
methods: Examining smoking-attributable mortality for 87 geographic regions in Canada.
The population attributable fraction
(PAF) was estimated as pd x [(OR 1)/OR] x 100, where pd is the proportion of total asthma cases arising from the exposure category (21), and the odds ratio (OR) was used instead of a prevalence rate ratio (PRR) (22).
This was estimated by a discrete version of the generalised potential impact fraction (PIF) (5) for continuous exposures, or a multi-level extension of the usual attributable fraction
formula when the exposure variable had several categories.