Estimated influenza virus

attributable fraction (AF) and AF trends across age groups among outpatients with influenza-like illness, Klerksdorp and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, May 2012-April 2016.

This reduction translates into a population

attributable fraction of 13% for males, and 10% for females for red meat consumption (average PAF 12%) and of 14% (males) and 13% (females) for processed meat consumption (average PAF 14%).

Calculation of the population

attributable fraction for both the MORs was identical, i.

Next, we computed the

attributable fraction of PTB for outdoor air pollution for each decile, using the formula published by Levin (1953):

The burden of diarrhea attributable to water supply and sanitation was calculated based on the population

attributable fraction (PAF), which has been widely used in epidemiological studies, to measure how much of a burden of disease could be avoided, if any risk exposure factor for the occurrence of a certain disease were hypothetically eliminated.

In the depression study, the investigators compared the incidence of suicide attempts among depressed patients during major depressive episodes, partial remissions, and full remissions over 5 years of follow-up and found that 78% of the attempts (adjusted population

attributable fraction [PAF]) occurred during major depressive episodes.

The fraction of deaths or DALYs attributable to heavy drinking (Heavy Drinker

Attributable Fraction (HDAF)) was estimated as follows:

They combined these data and the NHANES figures to come up with a population

attributable fraction (PAF) - an estimate of the theoretical effects of a risk factor at a population, rather than an individual level - to work out the number of deaths associated with time spent sitting down.

The

attributable fraction (AF) estimation of asthma prevalence related to proximity to major roads or highways was calculated as follows: (28)

The two main approaches for estimating prevalence-based disease-attributable costs, the focus of this analysis, are (1) a regression-based (RB) approach applied to individual-level cost data and (2) an

attributable fraction (AF) approach applied to aggregate cost data (Miller, Ernst, and Collin 1999).

Maximum likelihood estimation of the

attributable fraction from logistic models.

Study characteristics and the concentration-response functions (CRF) used in the

attributable fraction estimation.

Improving population

attributable fraction methods: Examining smoking-attributable mortality for 87 geographic regions in Canada.

The population

attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated as pd x [(OR 1)/OR] x 100, where pd is the proportion of total asthma cases arising from the exposure category (21), and the odds ratio (OR) was used instead of a prevalence rate ratio (PRR) (22).

This was estimated by a discrete version of the generalised potential impact fraction (PIF) (5) for continuous exposures, or a multi-level extension of the usual

attributable fraction formula when the exposure variable had several categories.