New and up-to-date

attributable fractions should be generated for each cancer

A corollary of the population

attributable fraction (PAF) is the population prevented fraction (PPF): the fraction of cases that could be prevented in the population if everyone were exposed to the preventive behaviour.

If we assume this

attributable fraction is accurate for the U.

Nonetheless, most of the variability in mortality projections (38%) was related to the temperature--mortality RRs used to estimate the

attributable fraction of heat-related deaths.

15) We also estimated the population

attributable fraction of hypertension that would be reduced if specific modifiable risk factors were eliminated.

They combined these data and the NHANES figures to come up with a population

attributable fraction (PAF) - an estimate of the theoretical effects of a risk factor at a population, rather than an individual level - to work out the number of deaths associated with time spent sitting down.

The two main approaches for estimating prevalence-based disease-attributable costs, the focus of this analysis, are (1) a regression-based (RB) approach applied to individual-level cost data and (2) an

attributable fraction (AF) approach applied to aggregate cost data (Miller, Ernst, and Collin 1999).

Maximum likelihood estimation of the

attributable fraction from logistic models.

The

attributable fraction (AF) estimation of asthma prevalence related to proximity to major roads or highways was calculated as follows: (28)

This was estimated by a discrete version of the generalised potential impact fraction (PIF) (5) for continuous exposures, or a multi-level extension of the usual

attributable fraction formula when the exposure variable had several categories.

Improving population

attributable fraction methods: Examining smoking-attributable mortality for 87 geographic regions in Canada.

But when the authors looked at the population

attributable fraction (PAF)--or the proportion of heart attacks preceded by each trigger--the ranking changed.

In the case of IHD, AFR-E estimates of the

attributable fraction incorporating the effect of the alcohol consumption from the global review (6) were used and only harmful effects of alcohol were considered on the basis of the overall drinking pattern in South Africa.

For ambient air pollution, the

attributable fraction and the population

attributable fraction are identical since the entire population is exposed.

The SIR was substituted for smoking prevalence in the

attributable fraction formula for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancers to allow for the long lag between exposure and outcome.