Conversion of parameters for compatibility with used attenuation
Finally, if one makes use of the following definition for the sound attenuation
The specific attenuation
[A.sub.H](r) [in dB/km] and the measured reflectivity [Z'.sub.H](r) [in [mm.sup.6]/[m.sup.3]] at range r can be expressed as
For the electromagnetic field computation of the cloud-ground lightning, both the source and the receiver are assumed to be on the earth surface and the attenuation
function W in (1) can be approximately expressed as
The purpose of the paper was to research the general attenuation
and shunt principle inside straight pipeline and branch pipeline after the shock wave had passed pipeline bifurcation, instead of shock wave reflection stack phenomenon in the regional area.
The visibility data is the most mutual way to determine the attenuation
due to fog, there are many models to determine the attenuation
depend on visibility such as Kims , Kurse , Al Nabulsi .
where [alpha] is the attenuation
factor and [beta] is the phase factor.
rate in a particular medium can be defined as the amplitude decay undergone by an elastic wave traveling in this medium, per unit of distance.
[[mu].sub.1] and [[mu].sub.2] were the linear attenuation
coefficient ([cm.sup.-1]) of lead and iron, respectively.
The measured value of C/N0 quantifies the quality of the transmission channel and can be directly related to the attenuation
. The GPS carrier signals are centered at 1575.42 MHz (L1 carrier).
Combining with the results of upper derivation and using the series expansion, the attenuation
coefficient is represented as follows:
The CT numbers are measured in the Hounsfield Unit (HU), which are essential to differentiate between the different tissues in the body by evaluating their attenuation
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