Since over 70% of Earth's area is covered by water (oceans and inland waters) as well as mountains, deserts, and polar ice, it is impossible to realize traditional ground-based observations of the atmospheric state globally.
The forward model is mathematically well posed--for a given atmospheric state, there is one forward solution.
In recent studies more relevant to the full atmospheric state, Zhang et al.
Since wind farms have been shown to directly modify the local atmospheric state and large sensitivity of high-impact weather features to the lower atmosphere has been demonstrated, it is reasonable to expect wind farm-induced perturbations may evolve rapidly downstream to affect the weather in a significant way.
The parameters of the atmospheric state
p, T and e are determined by the refraction fields subroutine on computational surfaces of the model using fields of forecasted parameters [theta], [pi] and q.
In addition to initial conditions, there are other aspects of NWP models that play a role in the evolution of the atmospheric state and its predictability.
This quickly results in tiny differences throughout the model domain with respect to the entire atmospheric state, supplying the seeds for rapid chaotic growth.
The challenge confronted in reanalysis is to reconstruct the three-dimensional atmospheric state
at t from gappy observations made around t--an inverse problem.
As far as the fitting of the atmospheric state is concerned, the resulting vertical profiles are compared in center and right panels of Fig.
We also show how this kind of measurement can be used for the remote sensing of the atmospheric state by retrieving both the vertical profiles of water vapor and temperature and the cloud microphysics.
NWP, or computer-based modeling of the atmosphere, involves representing the current atmospheric state
on a three-dimensional grid, applying the physical and dynamical equations that govern how the atmosphere will change in time at each grid point, and repeating this process to generate a forecast of desired length.
Should improving accuracy of radiative transfer be an insurmountable problem, though, it may still be possible to discern model error when considering different types of highly accurate data that obey different remote sounding physics, including in situ data types, but are sensitive to the same atmospheric state
As a result, incremental 4D-Var updates of the atmospheric state
are constricted by fixed (but uncertain) conditions at the surface, even if the available observations indicate that these conditions have changed.
14) defines the climate as "[...] a series of atmospheric states
in a specific place in its habitual succession." Here, atmospheric states
are defined as the types of meteorological weather and their complexion, association and dynamic characteristics; their seasonal behaviour in a specific location is essential for the definition of the local and regional climate.
The simulations of HMM states and of the atmospheric states
have led to an improvement of the information on the sequences of discharge states in the Danube lower basin, associated with atmospheric circulation.