articulatory system

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Of course, the articulatory system itself is anatomically continuous.
Since the articulatory system is continuous, there is strictly an infinite range of possible phonetic variation, allowing for arbitrary, non-linguistic individuation criteria.
Even formal principles are rooted in the nature of the human articulatory system and its discrete representation in the form of feature instructions and markedness constraints.
And this prosodic sense of stress is related to the physical sense in that it is embodied as pressure in the articulatory system.
In addition, comprehension difficulties follow automatically from limitations in word skills and, therefore, correlations between WM and reading comprehension should be significantly weakened if measures reflective of the articulatory system are partialed from the analysis.
We consider two possibilities: (1) the relationship between WM and reading is primarily mediated by the articulatory system or (2) executive processing deficits operate independent of the articulatory system and therefore contribute unique variance to reading beyond the articulatory system.
In this study, the influence of the articulatory system (i.
Experiment 1 (a) examined whether LD readers' performance on WM, STM, and articulatory speed measures was inferior to skilled readers and (b) examined whether the relationship between word recognition and reading comprehension, WM, and STM in LD readers' was influenced by the articulatory system.
We investigated, however, whether LD readers' WM deficits were moderated by both the executive and articulatory system.
This is because it was assumed that articulatory system mediated this relationship.
Thus, if LD readers' WM deficits reflected problems in the executive system, significant differences between ability groups would occur on WM measures, but not STM measures, when measures of the articulatory system were partialed from the analysis.
This was done because of the possibility that the STM composite score may better reflect the articulatory system than scores related to articulation rate.
If LD readers' problems in reading and executive processing are derivative, in the sense that reading is compromised because an inefficient articulatory system creates a "bottleneck" that constricts information in the flow of processing, then it would be expected that measures of executive processing (i.
This finding suggested that performance on WM and STM tasks operated completely independent of the articulatory system.
Furthermore, in this view, the three experimental conditions are characterized by a common generative process, which is either coupled to an articulatory system (in the case of PP), synchronized with an external event (in the case of OP), or alternatively 'runs free' without such articulatory or perceptual coupling in the case of imagery (see also Neisser, 1985).