articulatory system


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Of course, the articulatory system itself is anatomically continuous.
Since the articulatory system is continuous, there is strictly an infinite range of possible phonetic variation, allowing for arbitrary, non-linguistic individuation criteria.
Even formal principles are rooted in the nature of the human articulatory system and its discrete representation in the form of feature instructions and markedness constraints.
And this prosodic sense of stress is related to the physical sense in that it is embodied as pressure in the articulatory system. In fact, the many meanings of the word stress are not really distinct meanings at all, for what we stress emphatically we stress prosodically (and vice-versa) and what is stressed prosodically is the potentially stressful part of an utterance.
There are clear expectations of this model: LD readers' word recognition difficulties relate to problems in the articulatory system. In addition, comprehension difficulties follow automatically from limitations in word skills and, therefore, correlations between WM and reading comprehension should be significantly weakened if measures reflective of the articulatory system are partialed from the analysis.
In contrast to the above model, the second model views executive processes as providing resources to lower-order (articulatory system) skills, as well as monitoring a general system independent of those skills (e.g., Baddeley, 1986, 1992).
We consider two possibilities: (1) the relationship between WM and reading is primarily mediated by the articulatory system or (2) executive processing deficits operate independent of the articulatory system and therefore contribute unique variance to reading beyond the articulatory system.
In this study, the influence of the articulatory system (i.e., articulation speed) was partialed from the correlation between reading and WM.
Experiment 1 (a) examined whether LD readers' performance on WM, STM, and articulatory speed measures was inferior to skilled readers and (b) examined whether the relationship between word recognition and reading comprehension, WM, and STM in LD readers' was influenced by the articulatory system. Two predictions were tested in this study.
We investigated, however, whether LD readers' WM deficits were moderated by both the executive and articulatory system. Assuming that the two tasks draw from independent resources, we predicted that an ability group x type of span measure (WM vs.
These findings would suggest that WM operations related to the executive system, independent of the articulatory system, contributed to reading performance.
Second, and most important, if ability group differences in memory are moderated primarily by the articulatory system, then performance differences between ability groups were expected to be minimized when articulation rate was partialed from the analysis.
This was done because of the possibility that the STM composite score may better reflect the articulatory system than scores related to articulation rate.
Furthermore, in this view, the three experimental conditions are characterized by a common generative process, which is either coupled to an articulatory system (in the case of PP), synchronized with an external event (in the case of OP), or alternatively 'runs free' without such articulatory or perceptual coupling in the case of imagery (see also Neisser, 1985).
It is the most fundamental vocal expression, and yet requires an extraordinary combination of effort from the phonatory, respiratory, and articulatory systems. Sostenuto requires that the singer maintain a tone at the same pitch and intensity for the duration of the exercise, typically over several seconds.