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Arousals were observed more frequently in non-REM sleep than in REM sleep (17.
The average arousal index and awakening number was also higher in the patient group compared with controls, and arousals were observed mainly in non-REM sleep.
In conclusion, although the number of patients are small in this study, polysomnographic findings show that the sleep structure in patients with lichen simplex chronicus is adversely influenced by arousals and awakening which may be caused by nocturnal scratching episodes.
The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, revised in 2000, lists 24 Parasomnias encompassing non-REM, or arousal disorders, REM-related disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, and "other parasomnias.
The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying arousal disorders are still unclear, but current hypotheses suggest that they may result from the brain being in a state of partial wakefulness and non-REM sleep, simultaneously.
Primary arousal disorders share several common factors including familial clustering which suggests a genetic predisposition, a childhood predominance, and that they typically occur during non-REM sleep.
Characterized by a sudden arousal from slow-wave sleep with a piercing scream or cry, accompanied by autonomic and behavioral manifestations of intense fear.
Sleepwalking may be preceded by confusional arousals or sleep terrors (2,3).
Differential diagnostic considerations include the NREM arousal disorders, atypical arousals arising from patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and periodic limb movement disorder; nocturnal seizures; panic disorder; and dissociative disorder.
Finally, sleep-related eating syndrome consists of arousals from sleep with involuntary eating or drinking.
Normally, these nocturnal events trigger awakening or arousal from sleep, which leads to a swallow reflex.
In both the subjects with GERD and the healthy control subjects who had taken placebo, a nocturnal acid reflux event caused arousal or awakening 89% of the time.
Their arousal responses during daytime sleep were monitored and compared with that of healthy infants who were born to non-smoking mothers.
Each apneic period is terminated by an arousal or microarousal (the latter is documented by electroencephalography; it is not usually consciously perceived by the individual).
An obstructive apnea results in an arousal or microarousal, with a return to the awake pattern of homeostasis.