In this light, it seems that all the plants most often called arnicas could have been used for treatment of straining in one way or another , not only because of their names (or similarity to the name-provider) but also because of real biological activity.
An overview is also given of what was written about arnica in popular medical publications.
Arnica in popular medical books, almanacs and folklore before 1900
Mountain arnica was first mentioned in Estonian botanical literature in 1777 by the Baltic German writer and linguist August Wilhelm Hupel (1737-1819), who mentions mountain arnica among local plants (Hupel 1777:519).
In the Estonian language, arnica was first mentioned in a popular medical book by pastor Otto August Jannau (1800-1865).
An exception is Parnu Almanac that recommends arnica for healing bruises, adding that information has been taken from a Russian almanac for the year 1880 (PK 1879).
The description of how arnica was used in the 19th century is given according to HERBA 2007, which contains 833 texts on herbal healing from the collection of the famous Estonian folklorist and linguist Jakob Hurt.
The second text (H II 16, 560 (7)) suggests that arnica should be used against stomach ache if other homemade medicines listed before (a tablespoon of ashes or powdered brick, coal, rust or iron dust with water or vodka (H II 16, 558 (3)) did not help.
The last text (H II 7, 883 (2)) describes the use of arnica to heal straining.