Before the United States entered World War II, the Germans and the British had already tested the alternative of area bombing
or carpet bombing, where conventional shells are used to bombard a large are from the air -- a practice widely used during Second World War -- was banned by the 1977 Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Convention.
Until that point, most British raids were based on area bombing
which was inaccurate and wasteful.
Yes, they destroyed enemy communications lines and factories but between 325,000 and 600,000 innocent men, women and children were killed by horrific area bombing
Miles provides a historical overview of the issue of restitution in "Still in the Aftermath of Waterloo: A Brief History of Decisions about Restitution"; "Christian Responsibility and the Preservation of Civilisation in Wartime: George Bell and the Fate of Germany in World War II," by Andrew Chandler, shows the influence of the Anglican bishop of Chichester, who as a member of the House of Lords and vocal cleric was an outspoken critic of area bombing
and the decision to pursue the unconditional surrender of Germany; and Fritz Allhoff's "Physicians at War: Lessons for Archaeologists?
raised moral questions of its own, and it developed From a sequence of decisions that reflected the course of the war and the blurring of limits.
He obviously was indoors and did not see or hear the British aircraft flying over the area bombing
From the latter one gets a sense of the dissension that existed for years at the highest levels of the Royal Air Force on the issue of precision bombing versus area bombing
will not at any time direct (its) efforts towards area bombing
With the war in Europe over, however, Winston Churchill began to feel embarrassed about his support of the campaign of indiscriminate area bombing
of German cities that had resulted in huge civilian casualties.
Before these challenges can be analyzed, however, it will be helpful to sketch a theoretical narrative of how the area bombing
of civilian populations evolved during World War II and became normalized, that is, accepted and approved within American political culture.
From the very beginning of the British area bombing
campaign - February 1942 - both the effectiveness and the morality of the bombing campaign have been controversial.
In doing so, Bloxham provides a thoughtful discussion on the principle of proportionality and airpower--that is, what is the balance between the hoped-for military advantage gained from area bombing
on the one hand and the resulting civilian deaths and destruction of property on the other?
She flatly condemns area bombing
as immoral, giving the reader no hint that some philosophers plausibly argue that area bombing
in World War II may have been morally justified (given the lack of alternatives, in an age before precision bombing was possible).
Besides, he would point out, area bombing
is really no different morally from a naval blockade, which by its very nature also affects the whole population; Britain's blockade of Germany in World War I killed an estimated 800,000 Germans, albeit in a slow manner, and nobody found fault with that.