among semicaptive orangutans such as decreased arboreality
, decreased day ranges, changes in social structure, increased population density, dietary changes, and stress.
The heart lies nearer to the head to guarantee blood supply to the brain both in typical arboreal species (Lillywhite, 1985b; Lillywhite, 1985a; Lillywhite, 1987a; Lillywhite, 1988; Lillywhite & Smits, 1992; Lillywhite, 1993; Lillywhite & Henderson; Badeer, 1998), as well as in those which exhibit incipient arboreality
, as is the case of Bothrops insularis.
Given the widespread distributions of pitvipers in diverse forested tropical habitats, it is not surprising that a strongly prehensile tail associated with arboreality
has evolved multiple times.
The pattern and degree of divergence may also depend on other ecological characteristics, such as the degree of arboreality
, and taxa may respond to the river barrier, including its associated seasonally flooded margins, in different ways.
boliviensis may be suited for arboreal activity, although the degree of arboreality
remains to be studied.
Here, we report on interspecific variation in the climbing behavior of various gastropod hosts of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis commonly found in Algonquin Park, Ontario, and infer from the degree and temporal pattern of arboreality
, the potential for bias in the commonly used cardboard collection technique and the relative importance of various gastropod species in the transmission of P.
Two patterns ("P" and "L") of tendinous connections among the deep layer of the forearm muscles and the digits have been described, one of which (pattern P) shows an empirical correlation with some grade of arboreality