The radiological appearances of IH in the appendicular skeleton
is highly variable and non-specific, and thus it is often difficult to diagnose these lesions preoperatively.
Various skeletal sites are found to be affected in SAPHO syndrome, including anterior chest wall (65% to 90% of cases), spine (30% of cases with thoracic spine being the most frequently affected part of spine), appendicular skeleton
including long bones (5% to 10% of cases), and mandibular area (1% to 10% of cases) [6, 7, 9].
Hutchinson, "Tuberculous arthritis of the appendicular skeleton
: MR imaging appearances," European Journal of Radiology, vol.
Prevalence of anomalies in the appendicular skeleton
of a fossorial rodent population.
Reported metastasis to axial skeleton is 80% and 20% to appendicular skeleton
. In the long bones, metastasis is usually located symmetrically in the diaphysis with pathological fracture rate of 58% and usually associated with soft tissue swelling.
(3) Osteosarcoma is described as a rare tumor in birds, primarily occurring on the appendicular skeleton
. (4) Most reported cases of osteosarcoma in birds were untreated, and the patients were euthanized.
Despite biomechanical and physiological relevance, precise quantifications of segmental inertial properties and composite measures of the appendicular skeleton
remain largely inadequate (Durkin and Dowling, 2006; Heymsfield et al., 1990; Wells, 2009).
In the appendicular skeleton
absence of the mechanical loading will result in progressive bone resorption called disuse osteoporosis whereas the cranial skeleton experiences very low me- chanical load but still retain their structural integrity.
In general, about 90% bone tumors are osteosarcoma and 75% of which occurr on the appendicular skeleton
. The most common clinical signs of osteosarcoma are persistent lameness, severe pain and/or swelling in region of affected limb.
More than two-thirds of the radiographs (n=253, 68.0%) involved the appendicular skeleton
and just over one-half were performed by experienced radiographers (n=206, 55.8%).
(1) This type of tumor predominantly occurs in the appendicular skeleton
, but it has been known to appear in the spine in approximately 7-10% of patients.
The pelvic bones are bones of the appendicular skeleton
; the sacrum and coccyx are vertebral segments and are therefore axial skeletal bones.