Many Cladonia lichens are capped with brown-colored apothecia
. For instance, peg lichen (Cladonia subcariosa) has grey stalks with chocolate brown caps.
All of the specimens of this species collected during the inventory lacked apothecia
, and thus it is not possible to determine with certainty that they represent C.
Ac efo 'chydig o ddychymyg, mae rhai o'r apothecia
yn edrych fel tonsur mynach efo cylch o wallt!
sclerotiorum allocated in the soil recovering rate, recovered sclerotia mycelial growth rate and the influence of different substrates in the formation of apothecia
, elucidating the requirement of nutrients as for this type of germination.
They "over winter," lying peacefully in the mud, often obscured by leaves, and come spring, sprout tiny mushroom-like structures with small cups on the end, called apothecia
Toninia sedifolia can be identified by the presence of whitish to bluish-grey (green-olive when hydrated) convex to swollen squamules, by the blackish apothecia
without pruina (although sometimes with dense bluish-grey pruina), and by the flat to slightly convex disks.
The articles include name, type, references, thallus, apothecia
, apothecial anatomy, ascospores, pycnida, chemistry, substrate and ecology, distribution, notes, and specimens examined.
The genus is characterized by lecanorine apothecia
, blood red to orange-red discs and thallus-coloured margins, epihymenium with red pigments, paraphyses somewhat branched and anastomosing, Lecanora-type asci, ascospores hyaline, oblong, fusiform to broadly acicular and transversely septate (3-25 septa) to submuriform (Brodo et al., 2001; Elix, 2004).
Fruiting body elongated, rounded or disk-like, sessile with upper cortex; an apothecium VI--CRUSTOSE LICHENS WITH APOTHECIA
I--FRUTICOSE LICHENS 1.
Field production of fertile apothecia
by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa in Festuca turf.
This species is parasitic in the apothecia
of saxicolous taxa of Lecidella and is usually collected accidentally in association with collection of the host lichen.
If they are fertile, they produce bright or dull red apothecia
(cuplike spore sacs) at the tips.
First, it was evaluated the number of germinated sclerotia, stipes, and apothecia
, and then, it was calculated inhibition by comparing treatments with the control.
carminae Branches width: Basal (0.45-) 0.78 (-1.25 mm) Middle (0.42-) 0.85 (-1.20) mm Apical (0.25-) 0.58 (-1.37) mm Branching Irregularly branched, frequently twisted Soralia distribution Scattered throughout the thallus Soralia morphology Great morphological diversity Soredia 50-80 urn Apothecia
Not seen Anatomy Variation throughout the thallus Chondroid strands embedded in the medulla not seen Chemistry Variolaric and usnic acids Habitat Sheltered acid rocks 1200-2000 (2500) m Character R.