He is forced at one point to witness his beloved fellow priest Garupe--who would not apostatize
to save several Christians from being drowned at sea--himself drown in an effort to keep them from going under.
After he meets Rodrigues for the first time to convince him to apostatize
, we see that the younger man is incredulous that Ferreira could have fallen so far from his own ideal of how a Jesuit priest should be and act.
Similarly, what Rodrigues appears to forget in electing to apostatize
is not only the promise of Paradise for himself and for his would-be fellow martyrs but also the fact that he and they alike "are under the same sentence of condemnation.
27) The Muslims were no more merciful on the question of apostasy: "If a Muslim apostatizes
(irtadda) from Islam .
As three Christian peasants are wrapped in matting, taken out to sea, and dropped in the sea to drown, Garrpe neither apostatizes
nor stands idly by.
211) A ruling of takfir, Sanusi adds, is only applicable to someone who professes kufr, unambiguously chooses it as a religion, and apostatizes
from the religion of Islam altogether.