discuss that avulsion fractures may occur in cases where no acute episode is present and instead results from chronic repetitive traction on a developing apophysis
juglandicola in having the distinctly separated epigynal teeth, but females can be distinguished by the closely situated epigynal teeth (separated by about their width) and the anteriorly extended spermathecal heads; males by the small conductor (about the size of the conductor dorsal apophysis
) and the small, posteriorly situated median apophysis
e = embolus, ed = embolic disc, RTA = retrolateral tibial apophysis
, SD = sperm duct.
4 Tibial apophysis
with three well-marked teeth between VTA and LTA (Fig.
of the hemispermatophore very close to the distal lamina, but not forming a part of it; distal lamina slender, almost straight, anterior margin slightly curved (Fig.
15) 5 4 VTA short and digitiform; RTA without ventral lobe; retrolateral cymbial apophysis
large, brush hook shaped, denticulated at bottom, upper part strongly developed.
Male palp yellowish with dark tinges on tegulum; cymbium longer than wide, apically long, with three spines - one on apical and two on basal segment; embolus long and coiled; conductor curved and tube like; tegulum with median short bifurcated apophysis
, terminal apophysis
long and pointed, curved outward forming 'C' shaped cavity; femur with two short apicodorsal and two long dorsal spines, patella with two long dorsal spines, tibia with two long prolateral spines, two long erect retrolateral hairs.
8]), subtriangular, median margin straight, lateral margins broadly concave, with a long apophysis
Males' palps differ in the shape of the median apophysis
Possible pain generators in the knee include the subchondral bone, synovium, tendon, bursa, ligament, and apophysis
on leg 1 fused at base, retrolateral branch with a row of short apical spines, prolateral branch short, rounded, with single spine adjacent to each branch (Fig.
Viraktamath & Gnaneswaran (2009) defined the subgenus Tropicognathus as having the male pygofer with a well developed dorsal appendage, caudal margin with few stout setae, subgenital plates fused but variable in shape, apophysis
of the style either of uniform width or widened distally, apex bilobed or bifid and an aedeagal shaft with processes on shaft but lacking ventral basal processes.
Chaetotaxy of palp as follows: trochanter none; basifemur with one simple seta; telofemur with one uncinate apophysis
and one simple seta; genu with one spine like seta and two simple setae; tibiotarsus with 4 simple setae, one thick spine like seta and terminating in a small claw (Fig.
Abbreviations used in the description are: ALE, anterior lateral eyes; ALS, anterior lateral spinnerets; AME, anterior median eyes; B, bulb of the palp; C, cymbium; DAC, distal apophysis
of cymbium; E, embolus; PLE, posterior lateral eyes; PLS, posterior lateral spinnerets; PMS, posterior median spinnerets; S, spermathecae.