Slightly over prepared canals in teeth where the apical foramen
came off shorter than routine, which therefore could be prone to such preparations.
0 mm from the length that a 10 K type file was first visible at the apical foramen
The working length of each tooth was determined by inserting a size 15 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) into the canal until the tip of the file was minimally visible at the apical foramen
5mm of the apical foramen
in different clinical conditions using the Root ZX [Ounsi and Naaman, 1999].
This does not guarantee that instrumentation beyond the apical foramen
will be avoided and may forfeit the purpose.
Working length was established by subtracting 1 mm from the point where the file was just visible at the apical foramen
At the apical foramen
, the cementodentinal junction (CDJ) or minor constriction is the landmark that anatomically and histologically determines where the pulp ends and the periodontal ligament begins.
Key Words: Endodontics, working length, Electronic Apex Locators, Apical foramen
, Dentaport Root ZX.
When the file tip reached the apical foramen
, the stop was leveled to the cervical edge of the root and the canal length was recorded.
The teeth crowns were sectioned at the CEJ and warm modelling wax was used to seal the apical foramen
In early days of endodontic treatment when radiographs had not yet been applied to dentistry,working length was calculated by various methods involving understanding of root canal anatomy and mean root canal lengths, pain perceived by the patient when endodontic instrument passes across apical foramen
, tactical sensation felt in the apical part of the canal and use of paper points to identify bleeding point in utmost apical part of the canal.
0 mm short from the apical foramen
If the teeth with palatogingival groove has an involvement of the pulp either by direct pulpal extension of the groove or apical extension of the groove till the apical foramen
then endodontic treatment of the teeth has to be completed first and periodontal treatment has to be carried out.
Very small concentrations of the agent are placed into the canal(s) and assuming apical patency of variable size must pass through the apical foramen
via a concentration gradient against a potential back pressure from periapical transudate or exudate.
Following surgical access, the apical patency of mesial canals was checked using a #10 K file (Dentsply/Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), by observing the canal until the tip of the file became visible at the apical foramen
, aided by an operating microscope (Alliance, Sao Paulo, Brazil) at 8x magnification.