(74) In his Cambodian dictionary Chuon Nath &scribes 32 hierarchically stratified monastic placeholders, all appointed by the palace and organised into four separate apanages. Chuon Nath, 1938 and 1943.
The situation had previously been somewhat confused since it contained elements of the old apanage system, an arrangement that had theoretically come to an end with the Royal Ordinance of 24 Nov.
Ritual decapitation is also attested to in two other nineteenth-century Cambodian locations, Thboung Khmum and Kompong Svay, where apanage chiefs (sdach tranh) established their initial authority through the performance of a human sacrifice.
After an introduction, explaining the research method, the social economic situation as it existed in the apanage or core-areas of the principality of Surakarta is outlined.
The social changes that affected the lives of the peasants in the apanage areas were first and foremost a result of the penetration of western agro-industry in the area.