Linguists from Europe and North America continue the examination of aorists
and perfects that began in the previous volume of the series.
bar]hiti, whose corresponding present and aorist
stems are, respectively, karoti and ak[a.
The perfect tethneke 'he is dead' is clearly a result of a past event 'he died,' which can be expressed by the aorist
(perfective past) ethane.
Bemerkenswert hierbei ist, dass aufgrund der niedrigen Frequenz von Imperfekt und Perfekt beide Tempora mit den Renarrativformen des Aorists
Except in the indicative, the contrast of past, present, and future time is only incidentally relevant; and the main difference between present/imperfect and aorist
is to be found elsewhere: the former, often described as |linear', is used for the durative, habitual, or repeated, etc.
In addition to Joosten's explanations, I would add that several instances of aorists
rendered by participle + [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the Peshitta of Matthew express an element of hypothetical modality (24:22b, 43a, b; 25:27).
37) Itacism of [GREEK TEXT OMITTED] in speech is certainly possible in this period,(38) but it must be noted that H is maintained elsewhere in the inscription, including three other weak aorists
in [GREEK TEXT OMITTED] (lines 19, 22, 23); if derived from [GREEK TEXT OMITTED], the form on the stone would have to be a mason's error, perhaps influenced by the contemporary shift in pronunciation.
Leonid Kulikov ("The Vedic Medio-Passive Aorists
, Statives and Their Participles: Reconsidering the Paradigm") argues that participles in -ana- which are employed intransitively or passively belong with stative or aorist
passive finite forms; and if the syntax of the same -ana- form varies (occasionally along with its accentuation), this is because there are two similarly formed participles, one belonging to a middle paradigm (e.
After pointing out certain distributional anomalies (-is-, -sis-, and reduplicated aorists
are generally prevented from forming an imperative differentiated from the injunctive; verbs like da 'give', dhd 'place', stha 'stand', and ga 'go' cannot differentiate injunctive and imperative in the second person singular of the root aorist
; the imperative and injunctive do not contrast in negative clauses, where only the injunctive occurs), Baum goes on to discuss the functional distinction between imperative and optative in second-and third-person contexts and finds some tendency for the optative to be used for requests for tangible objects, while the imperative tends to signal hopes and wishes for intangibles.
We may note, incidentally, that the KS and VS readings of this mantra appear to be more closely related to the formula recited in connection to the offering to Vanaspati in the after-offerings (anuyajas) and collected among the praisas, insofar as the verbal forms employed are all aorists
rather than imperatives: PA 30 = RVKh 5.
On the level of vocabulary, new and difficult words are encountered, whose senses cannot be directly ascertained by reference to Amarakoga, but must be apprehended through resort to devices yet untaught; the full panoply of verbal inflectional forms is exploited, notably aorists
and mediopassives; the two futures are used properly and distinguished in meaning; precatives and conditionals are not infrequently met; though the noun is inflectionally far simpler than the verb, even here obscure categories are encountered, such as -r stem neuters or masculines in long vowels; syntax strains ever at the limits of intelligibility, testing the "Mallinatha" model, especially in the area of nominal compounding.
c) Systems represented in the Yajurveda texts noted--for the midlands--such that imperfects and aorists
Since both yudh- and budh- have characterized presents in -ya- (yudhya-, budhya-), the imperatives yodhi and bodhi must be classified as root aorists
This pattern of correspondence to aorists
appears to be inherited; cf.
Cf: also Thieme: "Im Hauptsatz ist der Gebrauch augmentierter Formen des Aorists
in den weitaus meisten Fallen mit Sicherheit von solchen des Imperfekts zu scheiden [with note: vergl.