Midgrade Gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock
6, 8, 10, 11] Single cylinder experiments carried out by Heywood and Mittal explored antiknock
properties of different fuel blends (PRFs, toluene, di-isobutylene, and ethanol) at various engine operating conditions.
Fortunately, the new alternative methods of improving the antiknock
properties of petrol are now available and include the application of up-to-date technologies and chemical processing techniques in the production of petrol and the use of high octane number components (oxygenates).
For many years the business was based almost entirely on the production and sale of the antiknock
compound for use in leaded petrol.
additives are the second largest class of objects amongst the recent patents, but the number of these patents has grown on the basis of metal (manganese, iron) compounds, which cannot be regarded as modern additives.
A common antiknock
compound in gasoline, it has low toxicity and is effective in very low concentrations.
Lead (Pb), a toxic contaminant metal used in many important industrial processes, is widely used in batteries, paint, and varnishes, as an antiknock
compound in gasoline, in pipe covering, and in welding.
Octane ratings measure the antiknock
properties of a gasoline; higher numbers indicate a better resistance to knocking.
2] Yet other industries must be phased out because they use unacceptable toxic chemicals, such as tetraethyl, an antiknock
additive used in leaded gasoline, for which there are no appropriate substitutes.
Kitman builds the story line around an alleged plot by the companies, billed in the accompanying press release as a "conspiracy," to suppress an allegedly superior antiknock
There were safer antiknock
additives available, including alcohol and benzene blends.
In batteries and antiknock
gasoline additives, lead had a monumental impact on the growth of the automotive industry.
Nonprice competition, as occurred between the commercial airlines prior to deregulation,(18) and, more recently, amongst the parties to an alleged conspiracy to fix the prices of antiknock
gasoline additives,(19) raises the cost of reaching a collusive agreement, increases the chances that cheating will go unpunished, and makes it more likely that the agreement will be detected.
As its Pew family owners, stubborn like Ford, refused to "pay tribute" to the owners of patented cracking technologies and antiknock
lead additives, Sun also had to research new methods for creating a high-octane, unleaded auto fuel.
At that time, the main product was ethylene dibromide, an additive in antiknock