Since the Hong Kong virus differed from its antecedent Asian virus by its HA antigen
, but had retained the same (N2) NA antigen
(16), researchers speculated that its more sporadic and variable impact in different regions of the world were mediated by differences in prior N2 immunity (16-19).
Urinary HC antigen
testing was important in rapidly identifying disease in the 2003 outbreak.
The company focuses on developing proprietary technology in immune enhancers, carriers and antigens
- new therapeutic agents aimed at enabling physicians to modulate the body's immune system by providing protection and treatment against an array of diseases.
Some investigators have primed these immune sentinels by loading the cells with antigens
in the form of proteins or protein fragments from cancer cells.
However, from an immunologist's perspective, the idea that antigen
was needed to bolster the immune response never made much sense.
Today, more than 6 million Microsoft Exchange/Outlook and Lotus Domino/Notes seats are virus-free as a direct result of Sybari's Antigen
Copaxone apparently acts as a decoy antigen
, because it mimics protein structures found on myelin.
The EPD antigen
mixes that are available and commonly used include IC (high-dosed mixed inhalants), XE (high-dosed mixed allergens), XO (low-dosed mixed allergens [a dilution of XE]), terpenes, formaldehyde, P/K C (Proteus/Klebsiella), odds and ends, and detergents.
At the NIH, a team led by Polly Matzinger of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases injected female newborn mice with an antigen
carried only on the surface of male cells.
In-depth analysis of key vaccine antigen
The Cancer Vac immunotherapy involves collecting blood from a patient, extracting a special type of white blood cell from the blood and then "loading" the isolated cells with a vaccine (comprising a mixture of a cancer antigen
and a sugar that is used to enhance uptake of the vaccine).
Mast cells sensitized in vitro with IgE respond to antigen
by degranulation and cytokine secretion.
In other words, there is no risk of infection, yet there is high-level antigen
expression; problem pathogen antigens
(such as those involved in immune evasion) can be removed, or other genes added; and antigens
can be easily manipulated using recombinant DNA technologies that are now well established.
Finally, it misses low-sensitivity responses because it cannot detect allergic disease at sensitivities less than the concentration of the antigen
That led to the first dendritic-cell vaccines, created by exposing the immune cells to a tumor antigen
, a protein on the surface of cancer cells.