However, relatively high concentrations are required for these antifreeze molecules to be effective.
Robert Ben and his group in the Department of Chemistry have been studying natural antifreeze molecules found in organisms like fish and insects that live in cold environments.
Key Words: fruit fly traps, antifreeze, propylene glycol, Anastrepha
Ethylene glycol based automotive antifreeze is frequently used as a capture liquid in insect trapping programs using flight-intercept, pitfalls or pan-traps because of the preservative and evaporative advantages.
Glucose may act like a natural antifreeze to lower the freezing point of water.
Research on freeze-proof animals already suggests different cells and tissues require different kinds of biological antifreeze.
Researchers discovered these so-called antifreeze proteins in the 1960s (SN: 4/19/97, p.
In the September-October BIOCONJUGATE CHEMISTRY, Ben and his colleagues report a new method for chemically synthesizing molecules that resemble sugar-containing antifreeze proteins called antifreeze glycoproteins.
Unlike conventional antifreezes, such as the ethylene glycol commonly used in cars, the proteins create a phenomenon called thermal hysteresis: They lower the freezing point of water below 0 [degrees] C without changing the temperature at which ice melts as it is heated.
In cold climates, cars often need an infusion of antifreeze to survive the winter.
The antifreezes don't lower the temperature at which ice melts -- only the temperature at which ice rapidly crystallizes -- so there are a few degrees between the melting point and freezing point of such an antifreeze solution.
The antifreezes also changed the crystals in more complicated ways.
The addition of these antifreeze
proteins lowers the blood's freezing point to a temperature below the freezing point of seawater.