A first subgroup of individuals was then selected from the above population on the basis of responses to the questionnaire, excluding those with any previous history of vascular disease or diabetes mellitus and those taking any cardioactive drugs (aspirin, [beta] blockers, diuretics, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-2 blockers, [alpha] blockers, statins, calcium- or potassium-channel blockers, antidysrhythmic
drugs, or digoxin).
Exclusion criteria included mechanical ventilation; physical instability defined by vital sign fluctuations requiring vasopressor agents, intravenous antidysrhythmic
therapy, or temporary external pacemaker support; extreme anxiety requiring exceptional psychological support using either pharmacologic or psychiatric intervention; dyspnea at rest or with conversation; and, unresolved chest pain.
The cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of four triterpenoid derivatives, namely oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA), and uvaol (UV), isolated from the leaves of African wild olive (Olea europaea, subsp.
On the basis of the vasodepressor, cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of these compounds, it was concluded that OA and UV isolated from wild African olive leaves, or crude extract containing all components, can provide a cheap and accessible source of additive to conventional treatment of hypertension, complicated by stenocardia and cardiac failure.
The following antidysrhythmic reference drugs were used, according to the Vaughan Williams' classification (1991), further developed by Weirich and Antoni (1991):