except amiodarone are stopped more than five half-lives prior to ablation.
Information collected included the type of AF that had been present (paroxysmal, persistent, or both); if cardioversions for AF had ever been done; the subjective frequency of the AF preablation; the presence of the risk factors of hypertension, coronary artery disease, and cardiomyopathy; the presence and names of anticoagulant and antiarrhythmic medications
before or after the procedure; the exact procedure that was done (including information on concomitant ablation sites treated); the number of pulmonary veins present and ablated; and the presence of any complications of the procedure.
Regardless of the VT mechanism, patients with recurrent episodes despite antiarrhythmic medication
in the chronic stage following blunt chest injury are likely to require ablation to achieve VT control.
(4) Treatment strategies used for AF are driven by safety, and include pharmacologic (e.g., antiarrhythmic medications
) and non-pharmacologic methods (e.g., catheter or surgical ablation) to control both rate and rhythm.
We also evaluated modification of the air pollution association by patient medical conditions, antiarrhythmic medications
, and recent arrhythmias.
For instance, a 100-dose supply of the 200-milligram version of the antiarrhythmic medication
Amiodarone--one of 10 of the most common drugs in the intercepted shipment--cost $116.97 from CanadaRx, while the same prescription can be purchased from some American pharmacy chains for as little as $41.
* Should I try an antiarrhythmic medication
first or continue with subsequent trials of medications before undergoing ablation?
The rhythm-control group was given an antiarrhythmic medication
chosen by the treating physician, while the rate-control group was given either a beta-blocker, a calcium-channel blocker, digoxin, or a combination of these as needed.
Significant arrhythmias were defined as atrial fibrillation for more than 24 hours, arrhythmias requiring initiating or changing antiarrhythmic medication
, or arrhythmia-related hospitalizations or electrical cardioversions.
Second, the mode of cardioversion and use or choice of post-cardioversion antiarrhythmic medication
were left to the discretion of the patient's attending physician; this provides the opportunity for bias between patient groups.
- Bristol Laboratories has announced that its antiarrhythmic medication
, Enkaid, will be withdrawn from the market, effective in December.
CH induced arrhythmias have been reported to be refractory to the standard antiarrhythmic medications
. (9,10) A failure to control CH induced arrhythmias with lidocaine was reported in two out of five patients with CH overdose.
Due to the fact that antiarrhythmic medications
are associated with the adverse effects of proarrhythmic or refractory hypotension, the use of these agents may further deteriorate the condition of patients with tachyarrhythmias.
Historically, maintaining sinus rhythm has meant prescribing antiarrhythmic medications
, such as amiodarone (Cordarone[R], Pacerone[R]), dofetilide (Tikosyn[R]), dronedarone (Multaq[R]), flecainide (Tambocor[R]), propafenone (Rhythmol[R]), and Sotalol (Betapace[R]).
Radiofrequency ablation is a useful tool for the management of individuals with symptomatic atrial fibrillation and as an alternative to antiarrhythmic medications
. The usual technique eliminates conduction from the pulmonary veins to the left atrium, since many of these episodes are triggered by electrical activity in this region.