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human cannibalism

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Caption: Anna Maria Maiolino, In-Out Antropofagia (In-Out Anthropophagy).
Some of them, although well mobilised, are not entirely new: we know, for example, that cannibalism, in the sense of a common, non-ritualised practice and a specific threat to the white invader or settler, was a largely invented term with little or no historical basis, and we probably also sense, even if we do not know, that it serves also as an inversion, such that the European's consumption, his eating-up of the 'native's land was reversed into a threat of being consumed, a reversed anthropophagy clearly akin to the eighteenth-century thought, still propagated on the Last Night of the Proms, that 'Britons never, ever, ever will be slaves', when the clearest reason for that was that, actually, we had, at the time this was written, quite enough slaves of our own.
In 1979 William Arens published a study called The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology and Anthropophagy, in which he expressed concern over the field of anthropology's apparent need for the existence of cannibalism in order to form itself as a valid discipline.
Anthropology & Anthropophagy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 21-22.
I refer to cannibalism as a European discourse about the other rather than as a neutral term signifying the actual instances of ritual anthropophagy recorded and narrated by the discipline of anthropology.
Moreover, we could also establish associations with the "Brazilian anthropophagy movement" and the ways it "mingled homages to indigenous culture with esthetic modernism" (310).
This metaphor was introduced in the 1920s by a group of Brazilian modernists led by Oswald de Andrade who adopted the notion of anthropophagy, long connected in imperialist discourse with the native Tupi, to describe their process of artistic production.
He investigates Du Chaillu's charges that cannibalism is rife among the Fang people, and claims that anthropophagy, while present, is relatively rare among the Fang (Gorilla Land I: 212-13).
The tradition culminates in two 'suasoriae' urging anthropophagy, which are put into the mouths of, respectively, a commander who wants to train his soldiers to harden themselves against scarcity (Polybius 9,24,5-7) and a prominent citizen of Alesia, besieged by the Romans, who proposes to eat those who are unfit for battle (Caesar, BG 7,77).
Reading into Astrophil and Stella a conflict -- experienced by Sidney as simultaneously personal and political -- between England and Spain, and Europe and the Americas, Greene argues that the echoes of such colonial discourses as anthropophagy and slavery in the sonnets show Sidney pulling a (partisan) "international politics" (179) -- the Anglo-Spanish struggle over empire -- into the ambit of the lyric, both articulating a desire for conquest and self-consciously reflecting on that desire.
Cannibalism (or anthropophagy) may be the ultimate secular taboo, for at its most extreme, it combines the sin/crime of murder, in the pursuit of revenge, survival, or (as in Larson's cartoon) curiosity and pleasure; a repudiation of the sanctity of mortal remains; and the removal of the veneer of civilized behavior.
Tommo manifests stereotypical Western expectations, and he entertains one conventional notion after another as to the anthropophagy of his hosts.
That is, what are the interwoven discourses that connect anthropology and anthropophagy; cannibalism and colonialism?
Las Casas, however, overcomes this limitation in his Apologetica historia sumaria [Apologetic summary history] (1559) where he transvalues Amerindian cultures (for example, anthropophagy and sacrifice are instance of religiosity and value of human life among Amerindians) and uses the "noble savage" figure within utopian discourse that makes manifest the semantic field underlying the opposition between "civilization" and "savagery" (see Rabasa).
Thus the work's strikingly schismatic temporality, even evident in the title After ALife Ahead, signals the total suspension of human agency: what Huyghe rightfully, yet resignedly, calls the "anthropophagy" of contemporary conditions.