This beautiful photo shows submerged rocks in the Red Sea absolutely covered with alcyonarians and other anthozoans
, turning this space into an explosion of life.
Antibacterial defense in anthozoans
with special reference to the sea anemone, Actina equine.
Unfortunately, many of these have not yet been adapted for use in anthozoan
Remarks: Thor amboinensis always associates with anthozoans
Isomolgus desmotes, new genus, new species (Lichomolgidae), a gallicolous poecilostome copepod from the scleractinian coral Seriatopora hystrix Dana in Indonesia, with a review of gall-inhabiting crustaceans of anthozoans
Similar studies with anthozoans
, the most common and widespread cnidarian hosts of algal endosymbionts, are lacking.
The pattern we found is complementary to that, consistent with the generalization of Fautin (1989) that distribution of sea anemones complements that of other anthozoans
at multiple scales.
In this context, we reviewed the currently available sequence resources for anthozoans
to identify genes that might play a role in symbiosis.
This is similar to findings in symbiotic anthozoans
where in both a scleractinian coral and in a soft coral, loss of symbionts is correlated with a drastically reduced reproductive output (Michalek-Wagner and Willis, 2001).
Among the erect clonal organisms, those developing a helical growth form are very rare, with the exception of some fossil and living bryozoans (McKinney, 1980; McKinney and Raup, 1982; McGhee and McKinney, 2000, 2002; McKinney and McGhee, 2003; Raup et al, 2006) and some cnidarian anthozoans
characterized by flexible organic skeletons.
comm; though note that anthozoans
have very low levels of intraspecific mitochondrial variation [Shearer et al.
In most anthozoans
, a radial polypoid stage starts alter larvae settle on substrate and metamorphose into primary polyps.
Pre-1920 studies of anthozoans
focused on colonies of the highly derived pennatulaceans.
the mechanosensory apparatus of the cnidoblast is simpler: it lacks the central kinocilium and instead is formed from a cone-like arrangement of the stereocilia with or without a related flagellum (Schmidt and Moraw, 1982; Kass-Simon and Scappaticci, 2002).
are now believed to represent the ancestral cnidarian life cycle (Collins, 2002; Collins et al.