Yet, the retractor muscles of anthozoan
polyps can be considered relatively fast-contracting muscles.
The influence of an anthozoan
"host factor" on the physiology of a symbiotic dinoflagellate.
Granular amoebocytes have been described in anthozoan
wound infiltrates (Young, 1974; Meszaros and Bigger, 1999) and graft rejection areas (Olano, 1993).
A staging system for the regeneration of a polyp from the aboral physa of the anthozoan
cnidarian Nematostella vectensis.
Only recently has a symbiotic anthozoan
genome become available, from the scleractinian Acropora diginfera (Shinzato et al, 2011).
(32) Others, although likely not able to be placed into a living cnidarian group, may be stem cnidarians, or even stem anthozoans
. The discovery of better preserved fronds in the Cambrian that closely resemble some of the Ediacaran fossils would seem to support this interpretation.
The stable substrate provided by rocky habitats support communities of algae, sponges, hydrocorals, encrusting non-scleractinian anthozoans
and scleractinians (as ranked in this study) similar to those of coral reefs.
(1,2) Cnidaria include "hydrozoans (fire coral and Portuguese man-of-war), scyphozoans (true jellyfish), and anthozoans
Collections made from weathered surface exposures along the banks of drainage ditches at this location include, in descending abundance and diversity, brachiopods (e.g., Callipleura sp., Chonetes sp., Mucrospirifer prolificus, Schizoporia ferronensis), anthozoans
(e.g., Aulopora sp., Heliophyllum halli bellense, Pluerodictyum cornu), bryozoans, crinoids (Gennaeocrinus variabilis), ostracods, trilobites (Phacops rana), bivalves (?Cornellites sp.), and tentaculids (Tentaculites attenuatus).
The main organisms, both in terms of cover and biomass, are anthozoans
(Paramuricea, Parazoanthus, Leptopsammia) and sponges (Chondrosia, Petrosia, Axinella).
There are certain circumstances in which anthozoans
, invertebrates and things which live in cages are infinitely preferable to the traditional companions such as dogs and cats.
Range([double Species([dagger]) Common name dagger]) Anthozoans
Anthopleura elegantissima anemone S A.
Predation on zooplankton by the benthic anthozoans
Alcyonium siderium (Alcyonacea) and Metridium senile (Actinaria) in the New England subtidal.
Investigations of other invertebrate population structures, including anthozoans
. have demonstrated a broad range of genotypic diversity, from populations that are almost completely dominated by single clones (Black and Johnson 1979; Mladenov and Emson 1990) to those with no evidence of asexual reproduction (Hunt and Ayre 1989).
The multifunctional muscle cell in anthozoans
is called an epitheliomuscular cell.