When the hook pierces prey, the ant lion injects venom and digestive enzymes via the grooves.
The gut of a larval ant lion dead-ends partway through its body.
Caption: Ant lion species that hunt in sand traps have evolved extreme eating habits that prevent grit from infiltrating their food.
For larval ant lions, however, there is no opportunity for habitat segregation, because both species are limited by rainfall and high temperatures to a spatially restricted microhabitat (Gotelli 1993).
TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 4 OMITTED] For larval ant lions, body size was correlated with survival in several density experiments [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3, 6, AND 8 OMITTED].
For ant lions, little is known of adult behavior or oviposition preferences, but these may well contribute to species coexistence, particularly since larval interactions do not indicate any obvious niche partitioning.
Ant lions throw considerable quantities of sand during pit construction and maintenance (Lucas 1982), and larvae will abandon patches if their pits are frequently filled with sand (Gotelli 1993).
However, this mechanism is not available for ant lions, which are limited by abiotic factors to sheltered microhabitats (Gotelli 1993).
For larval ant lions, coexistence is enhanced because the presence of third-instar larval pits generates interstitial habitat for first-instar larvae, and because density-dependent mortality among first-instar larvae is weak [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 5 OMITTED].
Body masses were then correlated with the probability of capture by ant lions.
Tuna-fish baits were established directly on the forest floor, without sand or ant lions present.
Foraging by ants in patches with ant lions was compared to foraging on sand control and forest floor patches.
The ant lions in the previous experiment were removed from their pits 3 h prior to the start of the census.
Ant lions were never introduced into these patches.
The analysis of pitfall traps revealed consistently fewer ants in the presence of ant lions [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED].