We extracted DNA from each pool of anophelines
, and from slides and filter paper blood spots, using GeNei Whole Blood DNA Extraction Kit solution (Genie, http://geneilabs.com), according to the manufacturer's instructions.
The larvae habitat features, like its permanent or temporary nature, artificial or natural, basic type, substrate type and vegetation, anopheline
and culicine larval presence and density, were noted.
These results highlight the high degree of conservation of GT between anophelines
and the potential to use this target to block malaria transmission in different malaria vector species.
israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines
in Western Kenya.
larvae and adults were collected following standard techniques.
In Pakistan about 24 Anopheline
species are reported among which Anophele sculicifacies and Anopheles Stephensi are confirmed vectors for malarial transmission .
Divergence estimates and speciation: Using two fossil calibration points (both at 34 Mya) we estimated mtDNA divergence times within a sympatric group of Anophelines
Abstract.- Four anopheline
and nine culicine mosquito species have been reported from Murree Hills.
Most of the literature on anopheline
mosquitoes has focused on the determination of the presence or absence of adult forms of malaria vectors in the different American countries (Rodriguez & Loyola 1989; Zimmerman 1992; Manguin et al.
(21.) Rao TR(1984): In: The Anopheline
of India (Revised Edition), Malaria Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 1-518.
An ideal indicator of malaria risk is the entomological inoculation rate (EIR), a parameter that relates both the behaviour and human-biting activity of the anopheline
vectors and the risk to humans of malaria infection.
(1998) noticed that localities altered by human activites showed a greater diversity of anopheline
species, probably caused by agricultural activities that provide additional nutrients to the area.
According to Forattini (2002), the presence of multiple floaters in the eggs is indicative of the existence of an evolutionary process associated with the genus Chagasia, in which an ancestral characteristic from a single pair of chromosomes underwent adaptation, as observed in the anophelines
Identification of the early larval instars of three comon anophelines
of Southern Georgia, USA.
It has been reported that the numbers collected outdoors and indoors cannot be compared directly because of the fact that adult anophelines
could be collected from houses or cattle sheds with less effort, as the adult tend to become concentrated in indoor resting shelters whereas the effort required is disproportionately more in outdoor shelters as the adults are scattered over wide areas (11,16).