Half of these fungicides fell under the broad classification of azoles, and the remaining fungicides fell under the classes of strobins, anilides, and quinolines.
Although the use of OPs, N-methyl carbamates, neonicotinoids, and pyridazinone declined from 2005 to 2011, the amount of anilides and 2, 6-dinitroanilines used in Washington increased in the same time period.
elegans predicting rabbit end points for anilide compounds) to a low of 17% ([Zebrafish.sup.P] predicting rabbit toxicity for urea compounds).
elegans .sup.P] .sup.T] Amide (24) 0.58 0.75 0.75 Anilide (14) 0.64 0.79 0.86 Carbamate (15) 0.53 0.80 0.67 Conazole (18) 1.00 1.00 0.89 Organophosphate (35) 0.80 0.86 0.57 Phenoxy (12) 0.67 0.92 0.33 Pyrethroid (12) 0.92 1.00 0.67 Pyridine (10) 0.70 0.60 0.40 Urea (8) 0.63 0.75 0.63 Concordance (c) Chemical class (a) C.
Amides, anilides, and organophosphates had a higher percentage of active chemicals in nematodes and zebrafish than in rats and rabbits.
Strain-dependent cytokine profile and susceptibility to oleic acid anilide in murine model of the toxic oil syndrome.
Despite the analytical efforts seeking toxic substances in these oils, only aniline derivatives such as fatty acid anilides (1,3,17,18) and fatty acid esters of 3-phenylamino-1, 2-propanediol (PAP esters) (19-21) have been identified in toxic oil batches.
However the comprehensive application of herbicides although an effective process to control weed in rice fields its repeated application of the same herbicides in the same field over time can cause severe obstacles especially as the weeds can gain relatively more resistance to the herbicides used (Christoffers 1999).Sprangletop has become resistant to propanil as aresult of repeated application of anilides
(propanil) in different countries of the world including Malaysia.