"We like to say any pain above the waist in women who have risk factors requires a good history and physical exam and really needs to be considered as an anginal equivalent
," he said.
There's also a rare secondary headache disorder called cardiac cephalgia, in which head pain is an anginal equivalent
. This generally occurs in people with risk factors for angina and has a temporal profile identical to angina.
It has been recognized that older patients or females with ACS frequently present with symptoms other than chest pain (CP; anginal equivalent
symptoms), such as shortness of breath (SOB), general weakness (WK), or pain at a site other than the chest (PAIN) (6, 7).
Their "anginal equivalent
," he says, is "less pain and more breathlessness." Patients with diabetes may also feel less pain and experience more breathing problems, says Maier.
are most common in elderly patients (up to 70% of those over age 85); those with long-standing insulin-dependent diabetes (40% vs.