Several studies have explored social factors contributing to low literacy among congenitally anarthric and dysarthric children (Koppenhaver, Evans, & Yoder, 1991; Light & McNaughton, 1993).
Anarthric speech, however, is of less functional assistance for the reader in the reading process, leaving the speaker to rely on other abilities (Foley & Pollatsek, 1999).
or aphonic patients, asking yes/no questions, avoiding questions with multiple-choice answers, and using alphabet boards or devices, such as speaking dictionaries, may help with communication.
For example, Bishop and Robson (1989) compared memory span for line drawings between cerebral palsied children who were either congenitally anarthric
(unable to speak) or dysarthic (difficulty in speaking) and normal speakers.
Predictably, these patients are typically tetraplegic, aphonic, and anarthric