(2015) these types of chromosomal alterations are due to changes in the formation process of spindle fibers, which prevent equatorial plate organizing and chromosomes to be separated correctly during anaphase
. That indicates the presence of eugenic substances (Oliveira, Voltolini, & Barberio, 2011), influenced by toxic compounds that had contact with organisms such as heavy metals and agrochemical compounds (Maschio, 2009; Peron, Canesin, & Cardoso, 2009).
Examples of Allium cepa roots cells in normal cell division: (A) interfase; (B) prophase; (C) metaphase; (D) anaphase
and (E) telophase at 400x magnification.
The overexpression of centromeric alphoid satellite DNA from chromosomes 17, 21, and Y in human stem (HUES-10) and fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells resulted in a marked increase in chromosome mis-segregation events during anaphase
. The analysis of HT1080 cells overexpressing 17 alphoid DNA during live cell imaging showed the disturbances in mitotic progression from metaphase to anaphase
, which usually resulted in cell death.
For the CA analyses, several aberrations such as chromosomal fragments, vagrant, and bridges in the anaphase
and telophase were analyzed.
Number of anaphases
is changed differently in different concentrations and treatment.
The frequency of chromosome stickiness (Figure 1E) ranged from absent in ESC II plant up to 23.88% in anaphases
of MPP II plant.
The genotoxic effects that were observed in the present study included, multipolar anaphase
, fragments, and deformed nucleus.
The genotoxic effects that were observed in the present study included, lagging chromosomes and chromosomes bridges at anaphase
and multipolar anaphases
When: [L.sub.s] and [C.sub.s] are the inertia and the sonic capacity which create the anaphases
to receiver, but the [psi] constant are know quantity, (her value for water are [psi] = 7s (Constantinescu, 1985), were s are the section area of the pipe) we can realised the construction graphic in the figure 2.
Interestingly, some isolated chromosomes were observed as well, which were not related to the "achromatic spindle" and produced abnormal anaphases
with laggard chromosomes and chromosomal bridges.
Additionally, the X chromosome was positively heteropycnotic in most gonadal metaphases and spermatogonial anaphases
It was also assessed the action of juice samples by the frequency of micronuclei, colchicine metaphase, anaphase
and telophase bridges, gene amplifications, cells with adhesions, nuclear buds and multipolar anaphases
As abnormal mitoses, triple-polar and tetra-polar metaphases, metaphases/anaphases showing lagging chromosomes, and chromosomal bridges were considered in total 100 metaphases and 100 anaphases
, respectively per cell line.