1 (b) IVM, in vitro maturation; GVBD, germinal vesicle breakdown; MI, Metaphase 1; AI, Anaphase
1; TI, TelophaseI; MII, MetaphaseII; SEM, standard error of the mean.
Broadly put, mitosis has four phases - prophase, metaphase, anaphase
, and telophase -- in which the chromosomes replicate and condense, align, separate, and then regroup in an orderly way prior to the division of a parental cell into two daughter cells.
It delivers the two groups of chromosomes to positions adjacent to the polar furrows midway between pairs of plastids in anaphase
and a phragmoplast is constructed in the midzone (Fig.
10 and 50 [micro]g/ml number of prophases and telophases generally increases by prolonging treatments, and the number of metaphases and anaphases
Next, the chromosomes exhibit pole-ward migration from metaphase to anaphase
because of the inherent tendency of the springs to shorten when they are not under tension (Figures 1C and 2C).
The presence of one to several univalent chromosomes or fragments at metaphase I or telophase II and anaphase
II suggested the lack of full homology in the pairing of homologous chromosomes.
In our test case with altogether 22 stacks, we trained the classifier to detect cells in metaphase and anaphase
when the spindle apparatus is notably expressed.
The genotoxic effects that were observed in the present study included, multipolar anaphase
, fragments, and deformed nucleus.
161,162) Telomere shortening is correlated in turn with CIN, as reflected by higher rates of chromosomal arm and centromere loss and higher frequency of anaphase
bridges in the colonic epithelium of patients with UC who have dysplasia or cancer, as opposed to nonneoplastic controls.
Survivin is a chromosomal passenger protein involved in metaphase, anaphase
The cells were recorded as normal or aberrant in the different stages of the cell cycle namely: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase
This increased calcium might be a centrin induced uncoupling of sperm tail axoneme from the basal body also helping in the separation of centrioles at anaphase
These characteristics indicated the regular and reductional segregation of all chromosomes during anaphase
This, along with the fact that PP1 is localized on chromosomes in anaphase
, suggests that PP1 is responsible for polymerization of lamin A/C also, but some other PP1 targeting protein may be there which targets PP1 to lamin A/C and this targeting protein might be getting activated only after the major components of NE including the pore complex have assembled again.
One means to regulate this process is through protein degradation, accomplished in part by the Anaphase
Promoting Complex (APC) and the Skp1-Cdc53/Cullin-F-box (SCF).