The anatomical distribution of NOP/ OFQ receptor ligand system has been observed in; cortex, amygdale
, hippocampus, pontine nuclei, central gray, lateral septum, anterior olfactory nucleus, raphe complex, locus coeruleus, substantia nigra, interpeduncular nucleus, and the spinal cord,  therefore, clearly suggesting that nociceptin plays significant roles in the stress responses.
circuit that acquires taste aversion memory differs from the circuit that extinguishes it.
Inhibition of 11s-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, the foetoplacental barrier to maternal glucocorticoids, permanently programs amygdale
GR mRNA expression and anxiety-like behavior in the offspring.
2009), but extra-frontal brain regions, such as the amygdale
are also involved in impulsive control (Bechara 2005); our data are consistent with these earlier findings.
The soundness of the left amygdale
is considerably related to operation with positive and negative words at instant recollection, while at the same time the soundness of the right amygdala is not related to instant recollection operation with either valence (during the time that the left amygdala may back the encoding of both positive and negative components in addition to the strengthening of positive material, the right amygdala may chiefly back the fortification of negative material).
Endogenous glucocorticoids influence complex biological processes, such as growth, metabolism and immunity; they also control the hunger centre, the sleep/wakefulness cycle; they affect learning and memorising processes by interacting with specific receptors, localized in the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and the amygdale
(1, 2, 3).
RUNX1 and SIM2 presented maximum under expression in the nucleus of the amygdale
Significantly, these regions namely the ventral striatum, dorsal anterior cingulate and amygdale
, were regions that are also particularly activated in drug addicts when shown drug stimuli.
18)) (-23)) These endocannabinoid signaling molecules are richly expressed in various brain areas including the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, amygdale
, dorsal and ventral striatum, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and spinal cord.
Regional cerebral blood flow in amygdale
and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD.
Although it is now clear that the amygdale
is not so specialized for fear, but processes a broader range of emotions, it was found that certain persons were impaired in their ability to judge the level of arousal of their emotions with negative valence (unpleasant emotions), including fear, anger, disgust and sadness.
Oxytocin increases trust-related behaviors towards members of the social group (Kosfeld, Heinrichs, Zak, Fischbacher, & Fehr, 2005), activity in the lateral and dorsal regions of the amygdale
following exposure to positive social cues (Gamer, Zurowski, & Buchel, 2010) and the salience of social information of close or reliable others (Bartz, Zaki, Bolger, & Ochner, 2011).
and the head of the hippocampus were displayed on the floor of the temporal horn.
He keeps his amygdale
in check and doesn't let fear rule his decisions.
The right amygdale
in men was activated significantly more than in women, whereas women activated fewer structures in the left amygdale