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The amphioxus is a species of fishlike creature that's seen to bridge the world's vertebrates (things with backbones, like us) and invertebrates (things that don't, like slugs).
The event of gene duplication that generated GDF8 and GDF11 might have occurred before the divergence of vertebrates and after or at the point of divergence of amphioxus from vertebrates.
Andrews, United Kingdom, and a co-author of a study on subject, said in (https://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/news/archive/2017/title,1335279,en.php) a statement Wednesday: "Amphioxus is an amazing creature that can tell us a lot about how we have evolved.
In this study, we first injected the amphioxus with recombinant GHl to test if GHl plays an osmoregulatory role as vertebrate GH does.
(2008) The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype.
Such a scenario would also explain why the lancelet amphioxus, a 'primitive' chordate, has a notochord with both cartilage and muscle.
"The Evolution of Alternative Splicing in the Pax Family: The View from the Basal Chordate Amphioxus "J Mol Evol.
Zhang et al., "An amphioxus TLR with dynamic embryonic expression pattern responses to pathogens and activates NF-[kappa]B pathway via MyD88," Molecular Immunology, vol.
Some animals have persistence of entire notochord even in adult life (Example: Amphioxus) (2).
Identification and characterization of novel amphioxus microRNAs by Solexa sequencing.
These ancestral states cover Arthropoda, Chordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, and two subphyla in Chordata--Tunicata (sea squirt) and Cephalochordata (amphioxus).
As shown in Figure 1, PfBMP-2 has a high overall amino acid sequence homology with that of hBMP-2 and Xenopus BMP-2 (Figures 1(a) and 1(d)), as well as that of the Drosophilidae homology Dpp and Chordata Amphioxus BMP2/4 (Figures 1(c) and 1(e)).
An amphioxus (also called a lancelet), which is a very distant cousin to humans and other vertebrates.
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