Swimming and ammonia toxicity
in salmonids: The effect of sub lethal ammonia exposure on the swimming performance of coho salmon and the acute toxicity of ammonia in swimming and resting rainbow trout.
The second objective of this study was to determine whether NH4Cl could pose risk of ammonia toxicity
under the conditions of the present study.
The assessments of sub-lethal ammonia toxicity
effects are important in terms of fish health as environmental endpoints.
Therefore, the theory of ammonia toxicity
alone cannot well explain the pathogenesis of HE, and it should be along with other hypotheses such as inflammatory response, oxidation, and nitrification stress, amino acid metabolism imbalance, neurotransmitter imbalance, and manganese toxicity.
Similar pH levels with different stocking density helped in keeping the ammonia toxicity
at low levels.
Nitrogenous excretion and defense against ammonia toxicity
. In: VAL, A.; ALMEIDA-VAL, V.; RANDALL, D.
NPN is often used in the production of animal feed, but at high levels can cause depression in growth and ammonia toxicity
Quantitative assessment of aerial ammonia toxicity
to the nasal mucosa by use of the nasal lavage method in pigs, American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol.55, No.3, pp.64-77, ISSN 133501340