Anatomy examination covered observation on gonad, pyloric ceca, spine, ambulacral
ridge, cardiac stomach, mouth, ring canal, and tube feet and photographs were displayed in Figure 3.
Over the next several days, the ambulacral
furrow becomes distinct, while the larval body reduces, becoming vestigial.
Shape of the second ambulacral
plate adjacent to the plastron (Ia2 or Vb2).
columbiana inserting its proboscis into the ambulacral
groove of L.
These pores are absent in small juvenile tests, but the adapical ends of the interambulacra can still be identified, because they form narrow gaps between the conspicuous ambulacral
We found it difficult to observe conspicuous changes in the behavior ofindividual Echinaster brasiliensis, hut in the aquaria they showed more intense movements of the ambulacral
feet at night.
first plates in each of the five interambulacral and ambulacral
Length and area measurements were recorded in addition to body mass because they to permit more thorough scaling analyses (Schmidt-Nielsen, 1975) of variables that might be functionally significant (e.g., ambulacral
groove area versus total oral area).
Substratum-initiated crystals adhered primarily to the ambulacral
groove of Odontaster validus near the tips of the arms, although a few sea stars also had ice plates on the aboral surface.
They show wound healing and can replace lost external appendages (ambulacral
tube-feet, spines, and tentacles) and internal organs (intestine, muscles, and nervous system); for reviews, see Dolmatov (1999); Candia Carnevali (2006).
The interambulacral and ambulacral
regions are labeled following Loven's system (Hyman, 1955).
Adult specimens were sacrificed and samples from the body wall (including radial nerve, longitudinal muscle, and ambulacral
tube feet), tentacles, respiratory tree, hemal system, gonads, and digestive tract (esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine) were dissected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at 4 [degrees]C for about 24 h.
The opening of the juvenile mouth soon followed, and the rudiment continued to develop; in each radius a first pair of ambulacral
podia and a pair of buccal podia formed (Fig.
For instance, the ambulacral
regions (where the tube foot rows are located), are composed of many small plates (one plate per tube foot).
Further, the fluid within the water vascular system (ambulacral
fluid, or AF) of echinoderms is not exactly identical in composition to seawater (Robertson, 1949; Binyon, 1964, 1966, 1976; Prusch, 1977; Ferguson, 1987).