She estimated that there were perhaps 50 typists in the city, including "amanuenses
and stenographic type writers." She said that some girls were earning $5 to $10 a week.
Despite its importance a key question about its authorship remains: is this book primarily Margery's work in its choices of content and narrative order, or are her words significantly reshaped by her male clerical amanuenses
? (1) This question has prompted a long and passionate discussion, evolving into positions starkly illustrated by an exchange between Nicholas Watson and Felicity Riddy.
Support provided includes amanuenses
(scribes), additional time, coloured question papers and the use of word processors, based on the recommendations of educational psychologists.
Throughout his life, he destroyed papers and drafts, he took special effort to conceal the contributions of various amanuenses
, and he took pains to make it appear as though his second wife's biography of him might appear objectively written, despite its having been drafted, in no small degree, by himself.
Lieb claims that the dispute regarding the authorship of De Doctrina is anticipated by the treatise itself, since the God it proposes is rooted in conflict, with the very proof-texts forwarded to substantiate his being themselves requiring "a kind of archaeology of interpretation" (44), since different versions of the Bible make appearances via the hands of different amanuenses
. Nonetheless, Milton as author-function ends up mirroring Lieb's analysis of the God of De Doctrina as a deus absconditus, or "hidden" deity (75): his presence both undeniable and impossible to fix.
Milton is hidden because the manuscript we possess is a "palimpsest" with "many layers of writing" (17) and the product of unreliable amanuenses
. Thus we have no "ur-text," as it were, one representing Milton's actual thoughts (20).
In this section, Humez also discusses the effects of mediation by various amanuenses
and analyzes embedded evidence that shows Tubman aimed to control her own story.
Specifically, chapter four boldly critiques the shortcomings of white women amanuenses
of African American women's narratives.
The plotters are all portrayed as foolish and deluded, the priests as noble martyrs, the Council as scheming politicians, the council's amanuenses
as thugs; and Sir Edward Coke, that alleged epitome of the common law mind, as bigoted and self-righteous a lawyer as even the English Bar has produced (`To make quite sure that statement [damaging to the prosecution's case] was omitted Coke underlined the passage in the examination in red and marked in the margin "hucusque" -- thus far and no further').
Fray Bernardino de Sahagun's encyclopaedic history of pre-conquest Nahua culture, surviving in a manuscript dated to the 1570s, is a central text for its content but also, Lockhart argues, for the opportunities it provides to study the activity of Nahua copyists who were both "amanuenses
and coauthors.' The parallel Spanish and Nahuatl versions of Sahagun's text have distinct editorial histories; no general edition of the whole Codex has yet offered parallel transcriptions of the Spanish and Nahuatl texts for comparison.
He seldom if ever wrote an editorial himself, but his writers acted as "expert amanuenses
," so that "what McCormick thought and what the Tribune said on its editorial page were in total harmony."