Group A showed islets, consisting of bluish staining beta cells in the central core and pink staining alpha cells
forming a mantle around it (Fig.
Above 50 years in alcoholics, the number of beta cells very much decreased and the alpha cells
Inhibition of the glucose transporter SGLT2 with dapagliflozin in pancreatic alpha cells
triggers glucagon secretion.
If the discovery translates to people, scientists may one day be able to coax type 1 diabetics' own alpha cells
into replacing insulin-producing cells.
This supports our hypothesis that the antihyperglycaemic effect of stevioside is primarily due to a direct action on the insulin producing beta cells and glucagon producing alpha cells
. In addition, it has been suggested that stevioside inhibits phosphorylation in the rat liver mitochondrias that may be attributed to an inhibition of the ADP/ATP exchange.
Pancreatic endocrine cells include all hormoneproducing cells, such as insulin-producing beta cells and glucagon-producing alpha cells
, within the islet of Langerhans, whereas the duct cells are epithelial cells that line the ducts of the pancreas.
Within the constraints imposed by the depth of proteome coverage, I could thus study the relative molar abundances of core functional pathways within human beta cell preparations and directly compare these to rat beta and alpha cells
. I found that the expression levels of core functional pathways (intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, signaling, and cytoskeleton) were well conserved but also discovered interesting differences, particularly in enzymes of nutrient metabolism and antioxidant defenses.
In those mice, but not in normal mice, they found that caerulein caused existing alpha cells
in the pancreas to differentiate into insulin-producing beta cells.
'The hyperglucagonemia that results when the alpha cells
overproduce glucagon has led to pancreas tumors in animal studies, so that's a risk.'
Failure of suppression of glucagon secretion from the alpha cells
of the pancreas contributes to hyperglycaemia in T2DM and is aLso seen in prediabetes.
This was due to restoration in the damaged pancreas of the balance between insulin-producing beta cells, which reduce blood glucose, and glucagon-producing alpha cells
, which increase blood glucose.Leading international diabetes expert Professor Michael Horowitz, Director of the Endocrine and Metabolic Unit at The Royal Adelaide Hospital, who has reviewed the results said: "These data are very exciting, and clearly demonstrate the potential of using these unique adult stem cells in the treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes".Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95 per cent of the 230 million diabetics in the western world, and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate.
COPENHAGEN Denmark, September 21, 2017 -- New stem cell research finds that current methods of producing beta cells from human embryonic stem cells have significant shortfalls, viz., beta cells produced have some features resembling alpha cells
Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog with a 97% homology with endogenous GLP-1, lowers blood glucose by enhancing glucose-dependent insulin secretion of beta cells and suppressing glucagon secretion of alpha cells
In the past three months, the Powers group at Vanderbilt, in four separate papers, has reported important findings about the "microenvironment" of the insulin-secreting beta cells and glucagon-secreting alpha cells
, which are among four types of cells clustered in "islets" in the pancreas.
Dr Herrera has reportedly conducted research that showed that alpha cells
in the pancreas can spontaneously, and without genetic manipulation, convert into beta cells.