The phonemic representation is the final product of a development process that has two important stages: the integration of universal allophonic
characteristics into specific phonological characteristics of the language that happens when the individual is around one year old, and the combination of phonological characteristics into phonemic segments, which happens between 5 and 6 years old (Hoonhorst et al., 2011).
Phonemes are represented between strokes and allophonic
variants between square brackets.
This would be possible if there was some notable allophonic
difference between the pronunciation of Germanic inital and medial *X at this point (e.g., *[x] initially vs.
The latter sound was actually also produced in Cantonese as an allophonic
variant for /ts/; thus it might be another candidate assimilated to /tr/ by Cantonese.
In English aspiration contrast is allophonic
in that the aspirated [ph th kh] and unaspirated [p t k] stops do not make minimal pairs.
The L2 acquisition of Spanish rhotics by LI English speakers: The effect of LI articulatory routines and phonetic context for allophonic
This picture certainly does not argue for the phonic equivalence of all possible /u:/ and /o:/ spellings in the Chester Shepherds play; rather it indicates that in Huntington MS 2, the graphemes <u, ow, ou, oo, o> represented sounds that were phonically close enough to sustain rhyme schemes, could have been grouped together by the ear, and may even have in certain contexts been allophonic
in the Cheshire dialect.
Hi: "Sounds in Li and L2 are related perceptually to one another at a position-sensitive allophonic
level rather than at a more abstract phonemic level."
kipma kangirun t[??]k 'to fear' 'You did not fear.' 'boiled rice' /k/ has two allophonic
and HADFIELD, JC., 2003b Field study of pesticide leaching in an allophonic
soil in New Zealand.
In light of Taylor and Taylor (1962), whose empirical study shows that speakers are sound-symbolically insensitive to allophonic
variations, it follows that perceived vowel-size differences can be construed as the symbolic projection of their implicit distinctive feature knowledge of vowel height.
From the other point of view there are no two different languages with identical phonemic and particularly allophonic
variations in sounds such a non aspirated / p/ or the distinction between dark and clear /l/ should be overlooked.
Among the topics are training and generalization effects of English vowel reduction for Spanish listeners, the impact of allophonic
variation on second-language speech perception, the interaction of second-language phonotactics and first-language syllable structure in second-language vowel production, and and the impact of voice quality resetting on the perception of a foreign accent in third-language acquisition.