Nipocalimab (M281) blocks FcRn-mediated IgG recycling, thereby reducing the pathogenic alloantibodies
in maternal circulation and blocks placental transfer of maternal IgG, including pathogenic alloantibodies
, to the fetus.
New light has been thrown on the importance of alloantibodies
, with improved detection methods and a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of humoral rejection (6).
 The incidence of alloantibodies
varies widely according to patient disease, prior history of transfusion, pregnancy and the antigen frequencies of patients versus donors in a geographic location.
The direct antiglobulin test result is negative in many cases, and new alloantibodies
may or may not be present.
Red blood cell alloantibodies
after transfusion: factors influencing incidence and specificity.
A special questionnaire was used to collect demographic and medical data including patient's age, sex, age on first RBC transfusion, ABO and Rh blood group, hemoglobin concentration, history of splenectomy, number of blood units transfused, transfusion reactions, frequency, and specificity of alloantibodies
by direct interview of patients or their guardians and from medical files.
The occurrence of such alloantibodies
is usually due to repeated blood transfusion and greatly complicates the treatment of these patients since they prevent effective platelet transfusion and might, theoretically, cause posttransfusion purpura .
Posttransplant high BAFF levels and the failure of controlling mechanisms of B-cell activation are associated with persistence and propagation of donor B lymphocytes capable of producing many auto-and/or alloantibodies
recognize antigenic epitopes displayed by the HLA molecule on the transplanted allograft and contribute to graft damage.
Current controversies in the formation and treatment of alloantibodies
to factor VIII in congenital hemophilia A.
Following the discovery of the first histocompatibility antigen "MAC" in 1958, numerous independent laboratories began identifying HLA specificities with alloantibodies
. During the span of about a decade, 1958-1970, virtually all of the common HLA-A and HLA-B antigens were identified by various names and presented at the International Histocompatibility Workshops by means of different serological methods.
First, IVIG and plasmapheresis have been used to desensitize patients with alloantibodies
and they are also effective to decrease antoantibodies in patient's circulation.
Detection of alloantibodies
using a sensitive antiglobulin microtoxicity test: identification of low levels of pre-formed antibodies in accelerated allograft rejection.
* was safe with no adverse effects or development of alloantibodies
, a common immune complication in patients receiving organ transplants or blood transfusions.
Increased macrophage density of cardiac allograft biopsies is associated with antibody mediated rejection and alloantibodies
to HLA antigens.