administered sublingually are taken up by dendritic cells in the oral mucosa and presented to T cells in the draining lymph nodes, likely resulting in activation of regulatory T cells and downregulation of mucosal mast cells.
The one remaining standardized SLIT product under FDA review is Ragwitek, a short Ragweed pollen allergen extract
, developed by Merck in partnership with ALK of Denmark.
For severe hay fever sufferers, a treatment called allergic immunotherapy can be prescribed by a GP, which involves administering increasing doses of an allergen extract
through injections or by putting tablets under the tongue.
Of these 38 patients, only 3 had complete insurance coverage for the allergen extract
and allergy injections.
10) For instance, by using the principal group 1 allergen from short ragweed (Amb a 1) instead of a crude short ragweed allergen extract
as the assay reagent, all 3 assays should be able to measure a comparable population of Amb a 1--specific IgE antibodies in any patient's blood circulation.
The skin prick test is the most popular and effective way of diagnosing hay fever: Many small needles are used to prick the skin of the upper arm and back and a tiny amount of different purified allergen extract
Reactivity of T cells with grass pollen allergen extract
In the other groups, mice were treated with 10 [micro]L saline or 5 [micro]g mite allergen extract
[Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp); Cosmo Bio LSL, Tokyo, Japan] dissolved in saline; mice were injected intradermally on the ventral side of their right ears on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, and 16 under anesthesia with 4% halothane (Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd.
Each week the patient receives a slightly more concentrated allergen extract
SLIT using a highly standardized HDM allergen extract
offers a major advantage over traditional allergy immunotherapy via a lengthy program of subcutaneous injections--namely, the convenience of home self-administration.
However, economy-driven healthcare expenditure restrictions have led to negative growth in European SIT sales for many companies, and in addition new German regulatory guidelines means now previously European-centric allergen extract
manufacturers are partnering with US and Japanese pharmaceutical companies to distribute their therapies in the previously underdeveloped markets.
Oralair is the first sublingual (under the tongue) allergen extract
approved in the United States.
Attempted treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy, where a patient received monthly injections with an allergen extract
for three to five years, failed because it could cause anaphylaxis as a side effect.
Despite the difficulties we encountered in aerosolizing whole pollen grains, we chose to use whole pollen grains because they more closely approximate real-life exposure than does allergen extract
Allergen immunotherapy involves administering gradually increasing doses of allergen extract
to induce immune tolerance.