Chemical durability showed that with gradual substitution of ZrO2 in glass, the resistance of the glass to chemical attack was increased and gradually reduced the extraction of alkali
to a least value near to zero.
injuries are the most severe form of ocular chemical injury and can cause irreversible damage with lifelong ramifications.
The exclusion excluded liability for: "Damage to property arising out of the discharge, dispersal, release or escape of smoke, vapors, soot, fumes, acids, alkalis
, toxic chemicals, liquids or gases, waste materials or other irritants, contaminants or pollutants...
Mendoza-Suarez, "Hydration products and reactivity of blast-furnace slag activated by various alkalis
," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.
Chemcap activated carbon filters are not impregnated with hazardous chemicals, but rather with safe alternatives, and provide effective retention capacities for solvents (type OS), acids (type H+), and alkalis
Philip Harris, an environmental health officer for Crawley, West Sussex, said: "Acid attack is a misnomer because strong alkalis
are also used.
Of particular concern appears the amount of alkalis
released from concrete aggregates that, according to laboratory leaching tests on aggregate samples, may significantly increase the alkali
content of concrete [4, 5].
Based on their tests, Szeles, Wright, Rajabipour and Stoffels concluded pure hydrated alumina forestalled ASR by reducing pH and alkalis
in concrete pore solution, consuming and reducing dissolved Ca and portlandite, and most of all, reducing silica dissolution and damage to aggregates at high pH.
Mandal, "Studies on interfacial behavior and wettability change phenomena by ionic and nonionic surfactants in presence of alkalis
and salt for enhanced oil recovery," Applied Surface Science, vol.
Activated Cements and Concretes, Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis.
In this scenario, alkali
activated fly ash cementitious materials are a promising alternative for the reasons that fly ash contain very less CaO.
activation is the process of aluminosilicates dissolution in strongly alkaline solution, with a subsequent formation of aluminosilicate networks composed of Al[O.sub.4] and Si[O.sub.4] tetrahedrons.
Tholeiites form at lower pressures than alkali
basalts, from higher percentages of decompression melting.