Specifically, I argue that a passionate adherence to the philosophy and secular religion of Bildung (self-development) among non-Zionist German-Jewish refugees acted as an obstacle to integration into a society already firmly shaped by the core ideology of earlier Aliyot
, namely, the Second (1905-1914) and Third (1917-1923) Aliyot
, and their ideals of Zionist-socialism, collectivism, and the pioneering ethos.
These services feature both men and women taking part in leading services, including receiving aliyot
. Such congregations also use mehitzas to separate the seating according to gender.
Women read the Torah, are honored with aliyot
during the Torah reading and even give the Sabbath "speech," tasks that for my entire life I considered exclusively male.
(1) In any event, it will come as a surprise to no one that there are other ways of interpreting this text, not the least of which is that aliyot
for women should constitute an affront to the dignity of the congregation.
In the trading city of Livorno, those who had travelled back to Spain on business were not allowed to receive the honor of aliyot
to the Torah.
But settlers of the early waves of immigration (aliyot
) to Israel were also moving toward a utopian vision.
Gordon, then of Minneapolis, Goldman appears to have shortened the Torah reading to seven aliyot
of only three verses, and also abbreviated the Haftarah (Prophetic Reading).
Many of its innovations--bat mitzvah, Sephardic Hebrew, aliyot
for women--would eventually become standard in Conservative synagogues.
That's why you have these big aliyot
from Ethiopia and Russia.
Rabbi Yehuda Henkin analyzes the area of women's modesty, as well as the issues of handshaking, aliyot
to the Torah, and dancing with a sefer Torah, and general topics such as questions of rabbinical misjudgment during the Holocaust and the relationship to Israel's government in the wake of the expulsion from Gush Katif.
At the seasonal holiday times of the three aliyot
b'regel, foot ascents, referring to the religious imperative to ascend to and pray at the Temple in Jerusalem during the Pesach, Shavuot, and Succot holidays, the population of Jerusalem must have swelled immensely, and more water was needed than the local Jerusalem springs could supply.
Throughout, a variety of elegant solutions are used to deal with the special issues related to vocalization, trope, chapter notations, verse notations, parshah divisions, and aliyot
Large committees were formed to handle such details as the selling of aliyot
, the distribution of seat tickets, the pricing of the tickets, collecting tickets at the door, ushering, walking the floor to keep order during services, keeping order outside the synagogue, and the serving of refreshments.
Thinking about the enduring legacy of the women's seder made me reflect on other enrichments of Jewish life that would never have materialized without the movement we call "Jewish feminism." The most obvious breakthroughs of the past 40 years in the synagogue sphere have been women's ordination, the proliferation of the bat mitzvah, women being counted in the minyan and having aliyot
, and the advent of non-sexist liturgy and God-language.
Moreover, there is a lengthy Torah service that follows the traditional format of seven Aliyot
interspersed with readings from the Torah.