These were used extensively in commanding attention; offstage sounds such as flourishes, alarums
, and knocks directed audience and actors' attention, and high intensity sounds often began the plays.
Carson's eloquent but unfounded alarums
resonated because malaria had been eradicated in the United States.
Empirical studies validate early alarums
, and the bench
The early modern English playhouse, like Caliban's isle, was full of noises--drums, alarums
, flourishes, cannon, thunder, bells, knocking, cock-crows--not to mention "many sorts of music" (TN 1.2.54) and unscripted noises from the audience (1) Constructed of wood, plaster, and lath, the playhouses themselves were, in Bruce Smith's words, "instruments for producing, shaping, and propagating sound," the stage a "gigantic sounding board." (2) Sounds emanated from multiple locations in relation to the stage--"above," "within," "under," "afar off"--animating the dramatic action in the three-dimensional sphere of hearing.
C2) Velma Bourgeois Richmond also discusses the ways in which the influence extends to stage spectacle and characterization: 'Sultan Shamurath parleys with the King of Jerusalem "upon the walls"; there are alarums
The various tunes are often little more than melodic fragments, surrounded by a bewildering assortment of alarums
With every passing year, investors paid more attention to domestic fiscal and monetary policy and less attention to the alarums
and excursions of international relations.
The 2006 Venice Biennale exhibited (and, despite its ostensive alarums
, effectively celebrated) a world of terrifying megacities (AR September 2006) with scores of millions crowded into centres where capital currently finds it convenient to concentrate.
The next wave could be coming, for also left behind were my age-mates heading into the last stretch of life with its attendant medical alarums
paying little attention to the alarums
and excursions emanating from
If a director follows the Folio text, which is unusually bate of stage directions for "alarums
and excursions," what results is a dumb-show that King finds "strangely unreal" (96).
For all its alarums
and breathlessness, Kingdom Coming is mealy-mouthed when compared with Rabbi James Rudin's The Baptizing of America: The Religious Right's Plan for the Rest of Us (Thunder's Mouth Press).
It is Exeter's day centre stage and this stage was full of exits and alarums
, high drama one minute and Whitehall farce the next.
Behn is also seen as a 'Heroickess' like Cavendish, but as the exponent of a heroic eroticism resisting the moral (and often hypocritical) strictures applied to the theatre as the century wore on; yet, despite Chalmers's claims for Behn's controlling hand in the argumentative alarums
and excursions of a late play such as The City Heiress (1682), its incoherent Toryism seems more a mirror of Behn's own disillusioned confusion than of a poised ambivalence.
Johnson's heartfelt, sober cri de coeur should join the writings of Anthony Lewis, David Cole, Mark Danner, and others whose recent alarums
, if unavailing, put them in the noble tradition of Alan Barth, Henry Steele Commager, Edward R.