While Islamic Jihad focused on removing political leaders, al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
menaced the general Egyptian population.
Nageh Ibrahim, a co-founder of al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
and a member of its Shura council, told the Kuwait-based Al-Rai newspaper that some of the group's members went to Sudan and joined arms with the army in the battle against rebels in south of the country.
Al Qaeda once worked with the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, whose leaders Juma Namagani and Mohammed Rafik Kamalov have been killed; al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
, which renounced terror in 2003; the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group; and the Islamic Army of Aden.
One point of criticism (albeit trivial) with respect to this volume involves the fact that Rabasa spends considerable time on the militant Islamist movement al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
, one of whose members was Sheikh Omar Abdul Rahman, the "blind sheikh," who serves as a spiritual leader of the cell behind the first bombing of the World Trade Center.
The two men behind the attack on Luxor, carried out by a group called al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
, were Egyptian exiles in Afghanistan with close links to bin Laden's training camps.
and anti-Israeli attacks; HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement) and the Palestine Islamic Jihad, both of which use terrorism in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel in order to undermine Middle East peace negotiations and to establish an Islamic Palestinian state; the Abu Sayyaf Group, which is a radical Islamic separatist group operating in the southern Philippines; Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
(Islamic Group), which is based in Egypt and seeks the overthrow of the Egyptian government; and the Armed Islamic Group, which is based in Algeria and seeks to overthrow the secular Algerian regime and replace it with an Islamic state.
Formalized terrorist groups, such as Lebanese Hizballah, Egyptian Al-Gama'a Al-Islamiyya
, and Palestinian HAMAS, pose the second threat to the United States.
For al-Turabi the most comprehensive call for a return to Islam was embodied in the teachings of the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, Hassan al-Banna, the literature of his Egyptian successors, and the teachings of Abul-A'ala al-Mawdudi and al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
in the Indian Peninsula.
Egyptian Islamist Assem Abdel Maged, a leader of Al-Gama'a Al-Islamiyya
, also first appeared in Qatar after receiving a life sentence in a case related to terrorism, as did Islamist scholar Yusuf al-Qaradawi, the head of the International Union for Muslim Scholars, who was handed a life sentence in May 2015.
They are banned but Al-Gama'a Al-Islamiyya
, which has renounced violence since taking part in the 1981 assassination of President Anwar Sadat, formed a party and ran.