Figure Severity of impairment in goal-directed activity in disorders of diminished motivation LEAST Apathy * Noticeable lack of motivation that varies from baseline * Reduced goal-directed behaviors or cognition Abulia * More apparent decrease in spontaneous, purposeful movement * Less severe impairment than akinetic mutism
GREATEST Akinetic mutism
Akinetic = no movement Mutism = no speech * Patient is alert with visual tracking intact but appears immobilized due to motivational deficit Source: References 1-3
Keywords: Akinetic mutism
, bilateral anterior cerebral artery territory infarct, epileptic seizure
after fourth ventricle choroid plexus papilloma: treatment with a dopamine agonist.
In apathy, abulia, and akinetic mutism
, diminished motivation is the defining feature.
World Health Organization Diagnostic Criteria for New Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients must have five of the following six symptoms: * Early psychiatric symptoms * Early persistent paresthesia/dysthesia * Ataxia * Chorea/dystonia or myoclonus * Dementia * Akinetic mutism
Patients should meet all the following criteria: * Clinical duration of symptoms >6 months * Age at onset of <50 years * Absences of PrP gene mutation * Electroencephalogram does not show typical periodic appearance * Routine investigations do not suggest an alternative diagnosis * MRI scan shows abnormal bilateral high signal from the pulvinar on axial T-2 and/or proton density weighted images Note: From "Clinical Importance of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, "by C.
DPHL can be divided into 2 clinical variations: parkinsonism and akinetic mutism
Myoclonus, seizures, spasticity, choreoathetoid or ballistic movements, ataxia, and chorioretinitis follow in the second stage, Optic atrophy, quadriparesis, autonomic disability, akinetic mutism
and coma occur in the final stage of the diseased.
She was paralyzed and mute, a condition known as akinetic mutism
Appropriate treatment of apathy, abulia, and akinetic mutism
requires an accurate diagnosis of impairment type, individualized treatment, and optimized general medical care using a multidisciplinary approach, according to Barry S.
CJD is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive changes, behavioral changes, gait disturbances, akinetic mutism
, and myoclonus.
To ascertain the clinical features of prion diseases, we analyzed the patient's age at onset and duration of disease course, which was calculated as the interval between the onset and the appearance of the akinetic mutism
state or death in the patients who died without akinetic mutism
She remained in a state of akinetic mutism
and died in June 2004, [approximately equal to] 32 months after illness onset.