Venous air embolism
: A complication during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
We believe that the most likely reason was the air embolism
via choroidal vein.
NCPE is caused by various disorders, such as head trauma, sudden airway obstruction, toxic drug intake, blood transfusion, intravenous contrast agent injection, air embolism
, pulmonary aspiration, prolonged seizure, and septic shock with factors other than elevated pulmonary capillary pressure.
Rowell, "Vascular air embolism
," International Journal of Critical Illness & Injury Science, vol.
Studies on animal models, clinical case reports, and series of divers demonstrating neurologic/pulmonary sequelae have shown limited sensitivity of CT imaging in demonstrating the presence of cerebral air embolism
. MRI, though able to detect subtle changes in brain edema, were also not shown to have the accuracy to rule out cerebral air embolism
Arterial air embolism
(AAE) is known to occur after scuba diving or as an iatrogenic complication.
On May 22, after a hospital nurse removed the catheter, an air embolism
developed, causing a brain injury.
Cerebral air embolism
. Report of five cases and review of the literature.
Background: Cerebral venous air embolism
is a severe clinical condition related to an unfavourable outcome in patients with neurological impairment.
following removal of hemodialysis catheter.
Procedural complications are uncommon, with vascular injury , cardiac perforation , air embolism
, device fracture , and cardiac arrhythmia  reported.
Complications include the need for tracheostomy or thoracic drainage, mediastinitis, an air embolism
[2, 7,11,15,16], pneumoperitoneum, pneumopericardium , and necrotising fasciitis .
Cerebral air embolism
(CAE) occurs due to emboli originating in the venous or arterial circulation and are most commonly iatrogenic and traumatic or because of pressure-related pathology.
(4) The differential diagnoses of amniotic fluid embolism include pulmonary embolism; air embolism
; acute myocardial infarction; sepsis; dilated or restricted cardiomyopathy; anaphylactic shock; anesthesia approach via the upper spinal cord or upper epidural block; anaphylactic reaction to local, inhaled, or intravenous anesthetic drugs or opioids; aspiration; bleeding due to placental abnormality or uterine rupture; eclampsia; seizures in pre-eclampsia; and postpartum bleeding.
(6,8) Postoperative complications can include venous congestion, nerve injury, air embolism
, or thrombosis.