sup] However, some studies have reported that agraphia
is also manifested at a fairly early stage of the disease.
On the other hand, alexia with agraphia
points specifically to the posterior parietal lobe.
Prominent amnesia has been described in a cortical variant of MS, with or without aphasia, alexia and agraphia
, (7) but acute presentation of MS with higher cognitive dysfunction is unusual.
Syndrome of finger agnosia, disorientation for right and left, agraphia
The plot in novelist Howard Engel's new memoir involves the treatment of a rare neurological condition called alexia sine agraphia
, which has whacked his ability to read but not his capacity to write.
The clinical features that are more common with a dominant left cerebral hemisphere lesion include aphasia, agraphia
, acalculia, apraxias, a left gaze preference, a right visual field deficit along with right-sided hemiparesis, and a right-sided hemisensory loss.
The MMSE is a 30-point structured clinician-rated interview scale incorporating pencil-and-paper tasks for assessing nine items: memory, orientation, attention, verbal fluency, nominal aphasia, receptive aphasia plus receptive apraxia, alexia, agraphia
, and constructional apraxia .
For example, alexia and agraphia
(difficulty reading and writing numbers) is almost always associated with lesions to the left hemisphere which also frequently involve neurological systems associated with aphasia (word retrieval difficulties) and reading disorders.
As Abraham and Torok remark, inarticulateness and agraphia
are often associated with incorporation, in which the lost object is not assimilated into the ego, mourned in language lamenting its disappearance, extolling its valued attributes.
Country Diary Drawings: 36 Drawings by Clifford Harper Agraphia
Press, 78a Crofton Road, Camberwell, London SE5 8NA.
Lyman, Kwan, and Chao (1983) described a case where agraphia
and alexia were more pronounced in the patient's first language, which was Chinese, rather than in his second language, English.
or dysgraphia -- Similar to alexia, but involving writing.
The diagram in Figure 1 depicts this approach to the assessment of alexia without agraphia
The first major contribution came from the work of Dejerine (1891, 1892) who identified the lesion sites that caused two different types of alexia: Alexia with agraphia
described patients who had acquired a deficit in both reading (alexia) and writing (agraphia
) and this was associated with damage to the left angular gyrus.
has been reported to appear before frank dementia/aphasia,[sup] making it a potential clue to detect FTLD in the context of ALS.